After the Civil War, black people had nothing, despite the many sacrifices they made during the war to fight for their emancipation. During Reconstruction they fought for their right to an education. Drago allows the reader to see how important access to education is in order for people to be able to make a real difference. After reading this book, it should be clear to the reader that without black people fighting for an education, their history could be much
The impact of this major historical event changed schools all over the world by assisting the desegregation of public schools to take a huge step forward in the South. Although, there have been issues with gentrification, which is the arrival of wealthier individuals migrating into an urban district, causing the rents and property values to increase and changes in the character and culture of the district. These drastic changes can sometimes verse desegregation back to segregation because many of these urban areas are populated with African Americans who are in poverty and the wealthy who are majority Caucasian. This migration will begin to take over forcing the African Americans to move out due to the increase of rent.
African Americans were forced to be segregated in schools that were often of inferior quality than those provided for whites, which denied their right to equal protection of the laws. To worsen the situation, the Jim Crow laws did not just affect schools, as they
In Nancy Heitzeg article “Education or Incarnation: Zero Tolerance Polices And The School To Prison Pipeline” she argues that youth of color are especially at risk for being pushed out of the school system which pushes them onto the street and then into juvenile. Zero tolerance is severely punishing students for committing wrong doings no matter how big or minor they are. This is most certainly a race crime. I remember reading an article for my social work class that stated the United States has the highest incarceration rate. What is even more alarming is the fact the New York state builds future beds in Riker’s Island and in upstate prisons depending on how many African Americans are born today.
The school to prison pipeline is an organized nationwide system consisting of local, state and federal education. It is also formed to drive students out of school and into the criminal and juvenile systems, which may result in students dropping out of school early. The school to prison pipeline mainly targets students who are of color and those who struggle with some form of disability. This system is disturbing because, there is nothing being accomplished by removing students from education, which will eventually cause them to struggle before adulthood and even after they reach this point of life. The school to prison pipeline is detrimental because, students may drop out of school, be subject to relying on government assistance to survive, and disregard the decision to further their education because of past experiences.
Have you ever thought a about what actually goes on in Juvenile Detention Centers? How the young teens are treated by the guards and other cell mates? If you really think about it, most people in this generation don’t understand how bad it is getting. Being a teen doesn’t mean you are an adult and every teen makes mistakes. From the point of view of the young prisoners in those detention centers, when you get in trouble or you make a mistake in the “outside world” people get over it.
The Latino population in the United States is one of the fastest growing ethnic groups in the country and in 2014 a new record of Latino population was set of 55.4 million, an increase of 1.2 million of the year prior (Krogstad and Lopez, 2015). Since the population of Latinos increased so did the rate of Latinos attending college. One of the major problems we have related to higher education in America is that the Latino male community possesses the lowest high school graduation rate and also the lowest college enrollment of any subgroup (Sáenz and Ponjuán, 2012). Latino males endure many different challenges before heading off to college and while attending college such as being home sick, not fitting in, being discriminated against, experiencing
McCarter describes thoroughly the consequences STPP has on the nation’s school-age youth, including but not limited to increased exposure the criminal justice system, and gives solutions that schools can implement that will hopefully limit the overwhelming amount of students coming in contact with the STPP. The article proves that zero tolerance policies are not conducive to a safe school environment and does not foster a safe learning climate for
The amount of unfairness that went on at the time affected everyone socially, economically, and with their education. No person can peacefully learn when they are scared about what might happen to them when they walk outside. Everybody at school is there for a reason. To get an education and further grow socially and intellectually as a person. Yes, segregation and inequality was happening all over no matter who you were, but when it comes to education the unfairness should cease as you are only there to learn.
Although the roots of this movement date as far back as the 1900s, the legacy of the African American’s role in World War II sparked the catalyst needed to promote the legislation that eventually led to their equality. “On May 17, 1954, The Supreme Court announced its decision in the case Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka” (Brinkley 772). This regulation overturned the Supreme Court’s earlier decision in the Plessy V Ferguson case. The separate but equal doctrine was a prime example of domestic policy that did not uphold the government’s constitutional promise to promote the general welfare of society-to include all that fall under the definition of an American citizen. The affliction put on children who had to travel to segregated public schools placed an unequal burden and damage done to those who it pertained to.
Children' brain are not fully developed yet. Thus, they do not realize the risks and consequences of their action. School-to-prison pipeline is arresting children for violating school rules. Statistic show drop out students are likely in jail for many reasons. Society need to focus more on education and spend less on prison, which can save thousands of taxpayers’ money.
The public school to prison pipeline was examined in the literature review through zero-tolerance policies and the effects it has played on graduation rates. Zero-tolerance policies have dramatically increased students being recommended to the court system according to the literature review. The literature review has shown a need for school districts to examine zero-tolerance policies and the negative effects that it has caused on students. Fran Silverman (2005) discusses students being punished under zero-tolerance and says, “The students were disciplined under their school’s zero tolerance policy and some advocates are saying these codes of conduct have become so strict that schools are turning into criminal justice systems, or worse, jailhouses” (pg. 54).
The first challenge is breaking the myth that the cost of providing facilities to educate the prisoners is exceptionally high. Many in the public might be tempted to think that college education for prisoners costs millions of dollars in addition to the money already being spent on prisons. This is because the detainees will not be in a position to contribute anything towards this form of education (Stoll, Raphael, & Project Muse, 2009, p. 45). Being one of the largest costs borne by taxpayers besides budgets in defence, healthcare, and retirement benefits, it costs somewhere between $52 billion and $70 billion dollars on average for U.S. taxpayers annually and $31,238 cost per inmate; However, cost of providing a college education for an incarcerated student only costs $ 2,000 to $4,000 a year (“Breaking the Prison Cycle”) and, in the longer term, a prison education proves to be far more beneficial than harmful in terms of cost-benefit analysis. According to a research by RAND Corporation, “a $1 investment in prison education reducing incarceration costs by $4 to $5, and those who receive a prison education have 43% less change of returning to prison than inmates who do not”(“Education and Vocational Training,” 2013).
Everyday Braxton goes to school and does the correct things needed to be known as a good kid. One day a fight happens in front of Braxton and tries to break the fight up, instead of breaking the fight up, Braxton ends up being fought also. He is told that he is punished instead of helped. In the short run everyone thinks he will learn from his mistakes, in the long run, this is ran through all of the colleges and nobody accepts him, Braxton drops out. When it comes to student misbehavior, most schools have long practiced a basic system of crime and punishment, isolating the perceived “offender” through detention or suspension.
It remains to be seen if zero tolerance policies nationwide will be relaxed or replaced with a more lenient and rehabilitation-oriented approach; perhaps the recent "thaw" will lead into another freeze. Lawmakers and administrators should, however, keep in mind that a school system that has too much in common with jail may end up producing students who are all too ready to become