1. Circumstantial evidence, also known as ‘indirect’ evidence, is often dismissed as being weaker than direct evidence. By its very definition, circumstantial evidence seems to be less credible because it requires an extra step of inference to determine a conclusion that might not even be the truth. Evidence is powerful when it successfully establishes facts and fulfills the burden of proof. Powerful evidence is credible, and paints a clearer picture of the truth, which allows courts to make more informed decisions in the interests of justice.
When discussing assessments most people envision a pen and paper evaluation that measures the acquired knowledge on any given subject. While this is partly true it’s important as educators that we understand that there are many different ways that a student’s knowledge can be assessed. One ideal way is to provide the students with an authentic assessment. Authentic assessments demonstrate what a student actually learns in class rather than their ability to do well on traditional tests. Which makes this type of assessment an excellent way of evaluating a student’s knowledge of a subject matter.
Similarly, this theory gave me insight to explore the aims of this study. By using this theory, I saw whether the students influence by teachers ' nonverbal behaviors or not. Furthermore, this theory provided students to learn through observation and modelling of the teacher wich supported me explore teachers ' nonverbal behaviors, students ' perceptions towards nonverbal behaviors and how do they influence learning English. Hence, Social Cognitive Theory provided major theoritical foundation for
Interview is a technique that is used by a researcher in collecting data by having dialogue with the participant. The interviews were used to support the data collected from the document analysis (teacher’s lesson plans and observation). Interviewing provided the researcher a means of gaining a deeper understanding on how the participants see and interpret a phenomenon that cannot be gained through observation (Gay et al., 2009). Moreover, Yin (2014) states the interview can provide the explanations of someone’s attitudes, perception, interests, feelings, concerns, and values of something or a case. Therefore, the interview was conducted to get more information related to the research questions as clearly as possible.
Unfortunately, ﬁndings from classroom assessment research has revealed a gap between the recommended and the actual assessment practices regardless of teachers’ gender and teaching experience (Alsarimi, 2000). Brookhart (2001) stated that “grading theory and practices will be better connected once the role of classroom assessment and grading practices in student achievement motivation and, it seems reasonable to argue that to be able to understand and make sense out of the gap between assessment experts’ recommendations and teachers’ assessment practices, it is important to ﬁnd out the possible effects of these practices on students’ achievement goals as one aspect of student motivation for learning. Improved tests can still be improved further
It might be difficult to make them understand all the rights and wrongs as their thinking might be affected by many factors around them. However, as a teacher it is a must to educate them to choose the correct path and ways that a society will accept them. Their good behavior or attitude will be seen if only the teachers have a good rapport with them. By understanding their interpersonal feelings the teacher can help them in several ways. As a first thing, to teach them to obey rules and regulations, I can make classroom rules and
Learners analyze how relative social status, distance, and imposition can influence the language of request and the use of request strategies. These tasks come out of the “learners-as-researchers” approach in which learners are encouraged to conduct lay research through observation and analysis of the data they have gathered for themselves. Finally, assessing pragmatics based on learners’ goals and intentions where teachers' assessment would include the following evaluative
Nunan and Bailey (2009) defined classroom observation as “a family of related procedures for gathering data during actual language lessons or tutorial sessions, primarily by watching, listening, and recording” (p. 258). Also, an interview was conducted with the classroom professor, Dr. Albert Mackay (a pseudonym), to find out more meaning about the rationale behind his everyday teaching practices. According to Marshall and Rossman (2010), “because thoughts, feelings, beliefs, values, and assumptions are involved, the researcher needs to understand the deeper perspective that can be captured through face-to-face interactions” (p.
This chapter will also talk about the pragmatic competence, pragmatic instruction in the classroom and speech acts. Finally the experimental perspectives about the pragmatic competence and usage of apology as a pragmatic competence in the literature also will be discussed. 2.2 Theoretical Background The theoretical background of this study is divided into some sections which will be discussed in details. First of all, the importance of Communication and interaction in Classroom Context and its sub sections will be reviewed. Then, definitions of cooperative learning and its underlying theories will be
As with the advantages of leading research interviews, disadvantages differ with the type of interview. Structured interviews inescapably limit responses and the data obtained may not be consistent if there are errors in the way questions are asked or understood by the respondent. Structured interviews can vary limiting in terms of allowing any real investigation or understanding of the responses given. In highly structured interviews the important changes, in comparison with postal questionnaire completion by the respondent, are that the researcher can explain questions that the respondent does not understand, or provide reminders to help the respondent answer the question. Consistent reminders are agreed beforehand.