Advantages Of Token Economy

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Token economy
A token economy is a system of behavior built on the systematic reinforcement of aimed behavior. It includes rein forcers which are symbols or tokens that can be used for other rein forcers. It is based on the principles of operant conditioning and can be located within applied behavior analysis. It can be used with children and adults in applied settings however they have been modelled with pigeons in laboratory settings.
Requirements in token economy
1. Tokens- Tokens can be very effective if used as rein forcers. A token can be of different form such as objects or symbol that can be exchanged for material rein forcers, incentives, services or privileges. In many settings such as applied a wide range of tokens have been used such as coins, checkmarks, images of small suns, points on a counter. They have no value or they are worthless outside the patient-clinician relationship, but their value lies in the fact that these symbols and tokens can be exchanged for other things. These tokens are not primary rein forcers but they are learned or secondary rein forcers. Many researches has been done on token reinforcement including animal studies. This means that even the behavior of animals can be changed or altered by using token economy.
2. Back up reinforce- Tokens have no intrinsic value, but can be exchanged
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In a research it was found that covert desensitization was effective in each case. Every single participant eradicated their undesirable behavior and this effect held in a longitudinal follow up. Opposite to this Okulitch and Marlatt found out that unit of 30 alcoholics and 30 social drinker subjected to aversion therapy through shock treatment did much worse than the untreated control group at the 15 month follow up
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