The United States of America Environmental Protection assigned zebrafish as the animal model in determining the environmental contaminants. The ZETAX (Zebrafish Embryo Teratogenesis Assay Test) identifies morphological and functional endpoints which are similar to mammalian reproductive toxicity studies. The ZETAX has been widely used in developmental biology and toxicology, teratology, molecular genetics and neurotoxicology (Kucukoglu et al., 2013). Several advantages offered by the use of zebrafish, Danio rerio, as a model organism in developmental toxicity screening test include economic husbandry requirements and fast ex utero development. The development of zebrafish was well characterized from eggs which are transparent from fertilization
ABSTRACT NRC-04, a novel antimicrobial peptide derived from skin mucous secretions of flat fish winter flounder, shows a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. In order to understand the conformational change of NRC-04 in different types of membrane, our team did experiments on NRC-04 with negatively charged bacterial surface membrane mimetic micelles sodium dodecyl sulphate(SDS), zwitterionic eukaryotic middle membrane mimetic micelles dodecylphosphocholine(DPC), gram-negative bacteria outer membrane mimetic micelles Lipopolysaccharide(LPS) and bacterial inner membrane mimetic micelles 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol(POPG). Fluorescence test shows that the C-terminus tryptophan residue of NRC-04 interacts with the hydrophobic
However, when these bacteria are grouped together to have high cell density, the molecules they secrete amount to a certain number, and once that number is reached, the behavior of that bacteria is switched on and in this case, bioluminescence is created. Similarly, in my project, I am screening the anti bacterial activity using oils. Before I use the oil, I have to culture the bacteria overnight so that I could use them in the plates after 16-18 hours of incubation. Based on the talk, I believe that I have an idea on how bacteria grow. This Ted Talk has inspired me about science in numerous aspects.
Yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares Introduction: The yellowfin tuna, (Thunnus albacares) which is also called “Albacore” is an important commercial tuna species, particularly the raw sashimi market. They are the second tuna species in terms of volume and popularity. They are extremely fast swimmers and tend to aggregate in schools especially with fish of the same size as well as with various species of dolphins or porpoises. Yellowfin tuna, travel long distances. They have a life expectancy of about 8 years.
When this point is stimulated, it will causes the mobilization of white blood cells (a group of cells that responsible to defense our body from diseases) . CONCLUSION We have reviewed three ways on how acupuncture works to help diabetic patient to have a better life. So now, you can recommend your relative who suffer from diabetes to do this interesting yet effective therapy as does not has any side effects as modern medication does. REFERENCES 1) Lin JG et al. Multiple sources of endogenous opioid peptide involved in the hypoglycemic response to 15 Hz electroacupuncture at the Zhongwan acupoint in rats.
The Effect of Exercise on the Cell Continuity of Betta Splendens Keerthana Arjuna Joe Gibson George Washington High School Abstract The objective of ted this experiment was to observe how exercise would affect the cell continuity of betta splendens’ muscle cells. To conduct this experiment, three fish were put under three different amounts of exercise for fourteen days. After fourteen days, the fish were euthanized and tissue samples were obtained. The tissue samples were stained with acid fuchsin. After staining protocol, the samples were viewed through a microscope, using the highest magnification possible.
6. Drug Resistance Tests These must be executed in focused laboratories to measure the receptiveness to antimalarial compounds of parasites collected from a definite patient. Two main laboratory methods are available: In vitro tests: where the parasites are grown in culture in the presence of increasing concentrations of drugs; the drug concentration that inhibits parasite growth is used as
The female louse will generally have 200 up to 1600 eggs. Mostly ranging between 300 and 600 depending on the size of the host and mother. The eggs are an oval shape, and are centrolecithal which means that there is a yolk center which is the vitelline membrane. The eggs also contain a chorion membrane which acts as a placenta inside the egg. Once the eggs have hatched, what’s left of the chorion membranes are released through the gills of the host.
I have also reviewed maternal factors which sets platform for neurogenesis. In the second chapter, I summarized advantage of using zebrafish as a model organism to study maternally inherited factors and neurogenesis. Then describe usefulness and weakness of transgenic zebrafish strain that has been developed in our lab previously. Further I focus on improvement of this strain to better understand process of neurogenesis and present a beautiful double transgenic
They will sometimes travel hundreds of miles to lay their eggs on the same beach where they were hatched. Green Sea Turtles mate every two to four years, and they can mate up to three to five times per season. When the females are ready to lay their eggs they climb onto shore where they dig a pit to lay their eggs. After they have laid their eggs they cover them up with sand and then go back into the ocean. Females lay anywhere from 100 to 200 eggs.
Due to controversy over GMO foods this particular avenue of research has waned, but in recent years there has been a growing interest in using transgenic fish to study toxicology (Gong et al 213, Dai et al 11). One possible application of transgenic zebrafish is the detection and monitoring of aquatic pollution (Dai et al 11). Aquatic environments are a major route of distribution for pollutants such as pesticides, toxic heavy metals, and endocrine disruptors (Carvan et al 134). Fish and other aquatic organisms can accumulate these environmental contaminants via bioconcentration in the food chain or by directly absorbing them through the gills (Carvan et al 134). Humans are also at risk for exposure through the consumption of fish from polluted water (Carvan et al
The leatherback sea turtle often grows to more than 1,000 pounds, and some turtles live as long as 100 years or more. Mexico is home to more surviving sea turtles than any country in the world, so its citizens and businesses bear an especially powerful incentive to safeguard the reptiles because they 're good for the planet, good for Mexico and good
M. musculus are a common model organism because of the advantages of the similarities to humans. It is especially used for research within medicine and genetic research 15. G. gallus have long been used as a model organism, to model human diseases and for developmental biology 16. X. tropicalis, also known as the Western clawed frog are mainly used in research as a model organism to study early embryonic development and cell biology 17. D. rerio, also known as Zebrafish are used as a model organism within several research fields, toxicology and developmental biology are two examples 18.
Baby gray whales can consume as much as 300 gallons of milk per day during their first year of birth. 44. Once a hunted and endangered species the gray whale is now considered one of the most popular marine mammals to those who participating in the whale watching industry. 45. A fully grown gray whale can weigh just as much or more than 5 adult elephants.
Researchers at the University of California, San Diego discovered that stingrays have the same enzymes used by “boneworms” to break down whale carcasses, and help promote photosynthesis in coral. However, this enzyme in stingrays is used to regulate their blood pH. This discovery is leading scientists to get a better understanding of enzyme’s function in human kidneys to regulate blood and urine function. To examine the enzyme more closely graduate student Jinae Roa isolated cells from stingray gills and exposed them to different pH conditions. Her and Martin Tresguerres discovered the more elevated and more alkaline, the proton pump activated by pushing the cells inner cytoplasm to the outer membrane, therefore, relieving it of excess acid.