Glucose, which is a six-carbon sugar, is at that moment divided into two molecules of a three carbon sugar. The breaking down of glucose, takes place in the cell’s cytoplasm. Glucose and oxygen are produced from this breakage, and are supplied to cells by the bloodstream. Also produced by glycolysis are, 2 molecules of ATP, 2 high energy electron carrying molecules of NADH, and 2 molecules of pyruvic acid. Glycolysis happens with or without the presence of oxygen.
When glycolysis breaks glucose (a 6 carbon molecule), it becomes pyruvate (2 molecules) and NADH (2 molecules). The Krebs cycle breaks the pyruvate from the glycolysis which becomes ATP. Another difference is how many ATP they each produce. Glycolysis produces 2 ATP and the Krebs cycle makes about 36 to 38 ATP. Energy metabolism is regulated by long chain fatty acids and ADP.
Oxaloacetate is regenerated after the completion of one kreb cycle. REACTION 2: Formation of Isocitrate: The next reaction of the Kreb cycle is catalysed by acontinase enzyme. In this reaction overall two H2O molecules are generated one water molecule is removed and other water molecule is put added into another location. The overall effect of this reaction is that the shuffling of -OH group from position 3 to 4. The yield that get is isocitrate
The beginning of the cycle started with the amalgamation of CO2 into organic molecules. This process; carbon fixation involves the reduction including electrons delivered by NADPH. Since "ATP from the light reactions influences parts of the Calvin cycle, it is the Calvin cycle that creates sugar, with the aid of ATP and NADPH from the light reaction". The raw materials for anabolic pathways and fuel for respiration is provided when Carbohydrates takes form of disaccharide sucrose travel through the veins to non-photosynthetic cells, and formation of the extracellular polysaccharide cellulose. Cellulose is the utmost plentiful organic molecule, as well as the main ingredient of cell walls in plants.
Controlled Variables temperature, pH, sucrase + sucrose incubation time 4. Describe what is measured as an indicator of sucrase activity and why this is an indicator of sucrase activity. I believe glucose and fructose was used as an indicator because they are what produces sucrose and sucrose creates more sucrase activity. 5. Explain why denatured sucrase was used as a control.
Before haem iron can be absorbed, it must be hydrolysed from the globin part of haemoglobin or myoglobin; this is carried out by proteases in the stomach or small intestine. Once the haem is released from the globin, it is absorbed across the mucosal cells of the small intestine by haem carrier protein 1 (HPC1). Once absorbed, the haem molecule is hydrolysed into inorganic ferrous iron and protoporphyrin by haem oxygenase, and can be used by the intestinal cell, excreted or used by other tissues. Non haem iron must be released from food components in order to be absorbed, this process is aided by gastric secretions such as hydrochloric acid and proteases in the stomach and. Following its release from food, the non-haem iron is present in its ferric form in the stomach.
In gluconeogenesis, the conversion of glucose- 1, 6-phosphate to glucose is approving out by the enzyme glucose -6- phosphatase. • In the 2nd step, in glycolysis the conversion of fructose-6- phosphate to fructose 1, 6 bisphosphate is catalyzing by the enzyme phosphofructokinases. In gluconeogenesis the transformation of fructose 1, 6- bisphosphate to fructose-6-phosphate is catalyzing through the enzyme fructose 1, 6 bisphosphatase. . • In the 3rd step, there is an alteration among pyruvate and phosphoenol pyruvate.
These electron chains are oxidised, transferring all of their electrons to their carrier molecules which are embedded in the ECT membrane. NADH enter the electron transport chain. The FADH2 originate in the citric acid cycle. In the first part of this process, electrons that pass from NADH to the electron transport chain, flow through the remaining complexes. NADH is oxidized to NAD during process.
Additionally, there exists three domains of the enzyme namely C- terminal catalytic domain, an N- terminal regulatory domain and a tetramerization domain. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) acts as a cofactor for the enzyme activity. Hence, the regulatory action by PAH enzyme involves activation by the presence of the amino acid phenylalanine, inhibition by the cofactor Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) and activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) – dependent protein kinase helps in the phosphorylation of the amino acid serine that is present on the 16 position of the regulatory domain of the enzyme. This in turn helps in maintaining the activity of the enzyme by reducing the concentration of the phenylalanine
RUBP + CO2 3-PGA Reduction Phase: It involves two reactions. Previously encountered in glycolysis. In first reaction, phosphorylation of 3-PGA by ATP to form 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate occurs .In second reaction, 1,3- bisphosphoglycerate is reduced to glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate by NADPH. In these two reactions all NADPH and two-third of the ATP are utilized to derive Calvin cycle Both ATP and NADPH activate the chloroplast
Fermentation test is used to determine if unknown #398 uses any oxygen to ferment carbohydrates and acids. Oxidation tests were used to determine if unknown #398 metabolizes carbohydrates and acids by cellular respiration. Both tests are observed by inoculation of unknown #398 into 3 sugar broths: lactose, glucose, and mannitol and 1 citrate (Citric acid) slant. Fifth test, Hydrolytic and Degradative reactions is used to determine if unknown #398 contains enzyme, amylase that hydrolyzes starch after streaking on a starch plate. Next test, inoculation of a urea broth and is used to determine if unknown #398 contains urease that hydrolyzes urea.
The energy released is trapped in the form of ATP for use by all the energy-consuming activities of the cell. The chemical bonds in the glucose are broken there is a release of energy. There are two types of respiration; Cellular,and breathing. Mitocondria is the powerhouse of the cell. The Mitochondria takes in nutrients (glucose,oxygen).
The two reactants present in the esterification process are the functional groups; carboxylic acid and alcohol. This reaction can be catalysed by the presence of H+ ions, often sulphuric acid is used. This type of esterification, where carboxylic acid and alcohol with an acid catalyst are used is known as the Fischer esterification. This is the type of esterification process which will be undertaken within this experiment, where 4mL of concentrated sulphuric acid will be used to speed up the reaction. It is also important to note that the esterification reaction can also include reactions of; an acyl halide
Many organisms use energy to perform their cellular functions. That energy comes from the energy that is stored in food then converted to adenosine triphosphate or ATP. ATP can be obtained with or without oxygen, aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration. Aerobic respiration produces carbon dioxide (CO2) as a by-product while anaerobic respiration produces Ethanol (C2H6O) or Lactic acid (C3H6O3). In aerobic respiration the “CO2 produced during cellular respiration can combine with water to produce carbonic acid.” While CO2 is produced, the amount of CO2 produced is different depending on the organisms, in this case crayfish.
In order for cells to energy stored in triacylglyceride, mobilization of triacylglyride into fatty acids and glycerol, activation of acetyl-CoA and their subsequent transport to the mitochondria and finally degration of fatty acid into acetyl-CoA and generation of ATP. Triacylglycerol is broken down into glycerol and fatty acids by the enzyme triacyglyceride lipase. The fatty acids binds to serum albumin and travels through the bloodstream to the mitochondria while the glycerol travels to the liver for metabolism because the fatty acids of the triglyceride is insoluble in water and therefore cannot travel through the bloodstream. The