Among these, polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), which belongs to the group of polyoxoesters has received intensive attention because it possesses biodegradable thermoplastic properties [Albuquerque et al, 2007]. PHA is synthesized by bacteria under unbalanced growth conditions. Some bacteria have been reported capable to produce PHA as much as 90% (w/w) of dry cells during depletion of essential nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus or magnesium [Madison et al, 1998]. Not only PHA serves as storage compounds of carbon and energy sources, but also as a sink for reducing equivalents for some microorganisms [Schubert et al, 1998]. PHA acts as an ideal storage compound due to its insolubility inside bacterial cytoplasm, which exerts negligible increase in osmotic
The results indicated the adaptation of Pseudomonas mendocina (biofilm forming bacteria) to high concentrations of benzoate (40mM) stress. It has been reported that several Pseudomonas species forms matrix associated sessile microbial structures called biofilms which allowed its existence in a variety of environmental stresses (Friedman and Kolter.2004; Singh et al.2006; Mc Dougald et al.2011). Biofilms protects its underlying cells from environmental cues, but mediates efficient biodegradation of toxic substances with less accumulation of metabolic intermediates (Vernhagen et al.2011). It has been observed that high concentration of organic compounds like benzoate in environment or in reactors at times create shock load and stressful situation to bacterial physiology (Ampe and Lindley.1996). To overcome such situations, bacterial cells enter biofilm mode and sustain (Bazire et al.2007).
These positions have been widely studied for bio-chemical modifications to yield derivatives for their structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies. Betulinic acid is pharmacologically more active obtained by betulin in two steps yielding up to 75% to supplied substrate at commercial level (Kim et al., 1997). It is clear from the chemical structure of betulin that most of the betulin derivatives presented in this review are lipophilic and thus poorly soluble in water. This may have significant role in explanation of the results of the bioactivity assays that have been carried out mainly in cell cultures. Observed differences in bioactivity between different modified betulin derivatives may be explained at least partly by different distribution constants between these analogs.
The hydroquinone metabolite purified from B. methylotrophicus MHC10 was evaluated for its antibacterial activity against a panel of several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. The zone of inhibition was used to evaluate the antagonistic activity of the metabolite. The standard antibiotics Ampicillin and Gentamycin were used as the positive control. Both antibiotics showed high antagonistic activity against all test pathogens. But in the case of P. aeruginosa, the hydroquinone treatment showed little high zone of inhibition than ampicillin Lee et al.,  studied the antimicrobial activities of the purified prodigiosin and cycloprodigiosin against B. subtilis KCTC 1914, E. coli KCTC 1924, Salmonella typhimurium KCTC 1926, S.
A bacterium contains only a single chromosome, but posses more sections of DNA known as plasmids, that are spreading all around the bacteria in an area called the cytoplasm. A bacterium is classified as a Prokaryote. A bacterium grows best when the temperature of its environment is around approximately 37 degrees. Bacteria: Plural of the word bacterium, two or more bacterium. Enterococcus Faecium: A bacterium that is known to live inside our intestines.
The second group was isolated from healthy fish intestine. The third group was isolated from the fish ponds from West Java Indonesia cities such as Tasikmalaya, Garut, Bandung, Indramayu and Sukabumi. Each colony of A. hydrophila grew white and the middle part was bright yellow in the Rimler-Shoots medium + novobiocin (SNI 7303, 2009) and was sub-cultured on TSA slant agar and incubated at 28°C for 24 hours. The obtained pure cultures were identified using the phenospecies and genospecies methods. The phenospecies characterization of A. hydrophila was performed in accordance with the Indonesian National Standard (SNI 7303, 2009), using Gram staining, motility test, oxidase test, blood agar test, oxidative-fermentative test and Rimler-Shoots+novobiocin test.
Antibacterial activity of marine sponges The sponge Aurora globostellata was found to have antibacterial activity against Vibrio cholarae, Klebsiella pnemoniae, Salmonella typhi, Candida albicans, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the biological activity has been tested with the crude extract and the inhibition zone observed with the crude extract were (12.66±0.66 mm) for Candida albicans, (14.00±0.57) for Salmonella typhi (K.Chairman et al., 2012). The strains of different fouling bacteria namely, Pseudomonas chlororaphis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis, Pseudomonas putida , Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus cereus were tested against different marine sponges for antibacterial activity with the crude extract. The sponge Oceanapia fistulosa and Fasciospongia cavernosa showed high inhibition zone against the strains, whereas the sponge Aurora globostellata was found to be with low activity when compared with other sponge types (Limna Mol VP et al., 2010). The sponge Callyspongia subarmegera found in the south coast of India taxonomically identified using spicules arrangement and taxonomic keys by Dr.P.A.Thomas and the partial DNA sequence of the sponge has been submitted to GenBank. The sponge has been extracted with methanol and tested for antibacterial activity against fish pathogens, and the extract was found to inhibit bacterial growth (Aishwarya MS et al.,
Strep throat is from the most common streptococcal bacteria, which is the group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus. There are also other groups of bacteria that can infect the throat that come from groups C and G strep bacteria. Strep throat can make can be given to a person if someone who has strep throat breathes, coughs, or sneezes and the tiny droplets with the strep bacteria go into the air. As the droplets get dispersed in the air they can be breathed in by another person. Strep throat starts within two to five days after someone comes into contact with a person who has the strep infection.
Medicinal plants and bacterial diseases. Infectious diseases. Infectious diseases are disorders caused by pathogenic microorganisms like bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa and multicellular parasites. These diseases are also called as communicable or transmissible diseases since they can be transmitted from one person to another via a vector or replicating agent. Infectious diseases account for about half of the deaths in tropical countries (Khosravi and Behzadi, 2006).
ABSTRACT Antibiotic resistance in Helicobacter pylori has become an issue of concern due to its eradication failures. This paper is a literature review of the ultra structure and morphology of the bacteria and how it develops resistance to antibiotics such as clarithromycin, metronidazole, amoxicillin and levofloxacin. It also reviews the action of these antibiotics and their prevalence rate of resistance to Helicobacter pylori. INTRODUCTION Helicobacter pylori known previously as Campylobacter pylori, is a Gram-negative bacteria mostly found in the stomach of humans. The bacterium is usually asymptomatic and is part of the normal flora of the stomach.