Aeromonas Case Study

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Discovery and description of Aeromonas species:
From the discovery of genus Aeromonas in 1943 till mid - 1970s, aeromonads are initially divided into two major groups; based upon growth characteristics and other biochemical features (Janda, and Duffey, 1988). This mesophilic group, typified by A. hydrophila, consisted of motile isolates that grew well at 35 °C to 37 °C and are associated with a variety of human infections (Ref ). In the second group, referred to as psychrophilic strains, caused diseases in fish that are nonmotile, and had optimal growth temperatures of 22 °C to 25°C. This group represent with isolates that currently reside within the species A. salmonicida (Ref ). Ten year following mid-1970s, several other groups were
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(iii) The current edition of Bergey’s lists three genera in the family - Aeromonadaceae, including Aeromonas, Oceanimonas, and Tolumonas (genus incertae sedis) (Table 1.1) (Martin-Carnahan and Joseph, 2005).
The table 1.1 provides a good practical standpoint on Aeromonas taxonomy, legitimacy of proposed species, and clinical relevance (Janda and Abbott, 2010). Reference:
1.2 EPIDEMIOLOGY
There is a frank periodicity associated with the isolation of Aeromonas species from the human gastrointestinal tract. Since these bacteria are not normal inhabitants of the gut (1% of stools were positive in many reports), most studies have found the recovery of Aeromonas from fecal specimens to increase coincidentally with the warmer months of the year. This rise in numbers no doubt occurs because mesophilic aeromonads grow optimally at elevated water temperatures, thus leading to increased concentrations of bacteria in freshwater environments as well as in domestic water supplies (67, 159).The same seasonality noted in regards to Aeromonas intestinal isolates has also been observed in other extraintestinal infections, such as septicemia, where 42% to 67% of
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Figure 1 depicts major and minor pathways by which humans become infected/colonized with Aeromonas species during the warmer seasons of the year.Most available data suggest that the majority of mesophilic isolates are acquired via contact with contaminated drinking water or through the ingestion of foods (produce, dairy, or meats) that are naturally exposed to aeromonads through irrigation processes or other “farm-to-table” operations. In addition to these consumable products, bivalves such as oysters and mussels are naturally bathed in estuary waters containing these organisms, and through their filter-feeding process, they actually concentrate these bacteria

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