Looping plume: Under super-adiabatic condition, both upward and downward movement of the plume is possible. Large eddies of a strong wind cause a looping pattern. Although the large eddies tend to disperse pollutants over a wide region, high ground level concentrations may occur close to the stack. 2. Lofting plume: When the stack is sufficiently high and the emission is above an inversion layer, mixing in the upward direction is uninhibited, but downward motion is restricted.
These differences are created by the temperature differences as well as differences in surfaces of the Earth, if it is land or sea for example and its ability to store solar radiation. These differences in pressure gradients coupled with the fact that Earth is rotating constantly causes winds for form. The speed of the wind will be proportional to the steepness of the gradient between high and low pressure. 2. The wind varies over time in strength and direction and can change at a moment’s notice.
The generation of wind is intricate due to a number of factors. Among them, the most consequential factors are uneven solar heating, the Coriolis Effect due to the earth’s self-rotation, and local geographical conditions. 1.1 Uneven solar heating Uneven radiation on the earth’s surface is the most significant of all factors. The unevenness of the solar heating are often attributed
You might be surprised to learn that Earth 's orbit around the sun is more complicated than it looks. There are at least three major ways that Earth 's orbit varies over the course of millennia: its eccentricity, its obliquity and its precession. Where the Earth is within each of these cycles it has a significant effect on the amount of solar radiation and thus, warmth that the planet gets exposed to (Nelson, 2012). The energy that cycles through the climate system does this, it starts off by having precipitation from the clouds. Then it goes into the rivers and lakes and it circulates, than in goes into groundwater
INTRODUCTION Earth is shield by the atmosphere where it is divided into several layer called ozone. Ozone is a molecule of three oxygen atom bound together and it is unstable and highly reactive molecule. Ozone is naturally in stratosphere when highly energetic solar radiation strikes oxygen molecule (O2) and cause the two oxygen atom to split apart in a process called Photolysis. A freed atom collide with another oxygen then it join up forming ozone, O3 . The formation of ozone is explained with certain mechanism where both ozone molecule,O3 and oxygen molecules, O2 is absorb ultraviolet in difference wavelength, the ozone molecule is absorbs in a region between 240 nm-280 nm .
Radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a medium. There exist a variety of radiations such as electromagnetic radiations like radio waves, visible light, x-rays, and gamma radiation (γ) and particle radiations like alpha radiation (α), beta radiation (β), and neutron radiation. One of the major reasons for the occurrence of these radiations is the radioactivity or radioactive decay. Radioactivity or radioactive decay is the process by which the nucleus of an unstable atom loses energy by emitting radiations. Radioactive decay occurs in unstable atomic nuclei.
There are three ways this energy can be transferred, Radiation, Convection and Conduction. Radiation is when energy from the sun travels through the atmosphere and towards the earth’s surface due to incoming solar radiation. When it reaches the earth’s surface, the surface then heats up, as it heats up it gives of radiation which warms the earth’s atmosphere, this radiation is known as terrestrial radiation. E.g. if you stand near a fireplace or near a fire you can feel the heat from the fire due to radiation.
The Sun’s energy which radiates into the Earth’s surface and harnessed by solar cells are composed of broad spectrum of electro-magnetic (EM) waves combined together which form visible light that have different power densities depending on the wavelength of propagation. The particular region of operation for crystalline silicon solar cell is the visible spectrum. Particle nature of light Light consists of energy carrying quantum-mechanical particles called photon. The energy of photon is directly proportional to the frequency of propagation. Energy of photons can be calculated using the equation E = hc/ λ or E(eV) = 1.24 / λ(μm) which give results in electron volts.
Monitoring the amount of carbon present in the atmosphere is difficult as the values can increase through process such as combustion, wildfires, volcanic eruptions, burning of fuels, production of biomass, volcanic eruptions etc Oxygen is found in atmosphere, biosphere and lithosphere.The Oxygen Cycle begins with photosynthesis whereby plants convert carbon dioxide into oxygen as a by product. The oxygen is used by humans and animals during respiration and during various decay mechanisms. In essence, the study of earth system is imperative because the root of all the environmental changes lie in the metamorphosis of the earth coupled with the anthropogenic changes. It is important to study each component individually as well as together to be able to see how they interact with each other in the scenarios of variations in nature and human influenced anthropogenic changes. It is important to know that these complex interactions between different spheres of the earth system through biogeochemical cycles ensure the proper functioning of the planet