Introduction The purpose of this lab is to investigate the enzyme action of proteases in pineapple. Enzymes are biological catalyst which speeds up the chemical reaction without being used. Enzymes are protein that is folded into complex shape that allow smaller molecules to fit into them, and also speed up the chemical reaction. It does not get used in chemical reaction, so it can get reuse again. Proteases are enzymes that breaks down protein, specifically digestive proteins, and it is any enzymes that can perform proteolysis.
Bacterium growth on various agar plates Introduction The purpose of this experiment is to show different agar plates inhibit or enable growth of different organisms. Some varieties of media enable the grow of a wide range of organisms such as nutrient agar. Other media are selective which means they contain specific nutrients to encourage the growth of certain organisms. This means other organisms will die due to the selective nutrients such as high concentration of salt which will cause plasmolysis. Differential organisms require different nutrients which show it is fairly easy to isolate and identify organisms by using selective media.
The graph presents the trend of the rate of reaction decreasing when the temperature is lower. This is shown through the average rate of reaction time being 89.5 seconds for the cold water, while in the hot water the tablet’s average reaction time was 41 seconds. Based on the graph, you can see a significant change between the two times, the average cold water time’s bar have a vast change from the average hot water time’s bar. The reason I chose a bar graph to display my data was to be able to compare distinct categories in an organized manner, while having the changes between them
However pathogens have mechanisms where it can mask its presence, such that the host would not be able to detect, and release antibodies to destroy the invading pathogens. The only way the host can eliminate pathogens, is by releasing antibodies, to form an antigen- antibody complex and finally be removed via phagocytosis. The masking of its presence in the host could be one of the many effects of evolution. As microbes from the past go through different unfavorable conditions over different periods of time, they undergo mutations often and some of these mutations can cause the microbe to have favorable characteristics that allow them to survive in such harsh conditions and pass on these characteristics to its
Abstract: Drug companies must apply the knowledge gathered from the effects of substrate concentration in an enzyme catalyzed reaction. The awareness of inhibitors must be applied so that their developed drugs do not inhibit enzymes. It would be important to consider substrate concentrations in relationship to target enzymes that are exposed. Competitive inhibitor drugs compete with high concentrations of ATP in the cell and proteins inside the cell contain lower concentrations. Thus the knowledge of the effects of substrate concentration on enzyme activity would aid drug designers in utilizing competitive inhibitors that will inhibit the enzyme more effectively.
Occurring in plants, especially spinach, rhubarb, and certain other vegetables and nuts, and capable of forming an insoluble salt with calcium and interfering with its absorption by the body. (Garcia-Fernandez et al., 2014) Structure of oxalate ion Structure of calcium oxalate (Source: Garcia-Fernandez et al., 2014) 1.1 Oxalates in Food Food Category Example of foods Fruits Blackberries, blueberries, raspberries, strawberries, currants, kiwifruit, concord grapes, figs, tangerines, rhubarb and plums Vegetable Spinach, Swiss chard, beets (root part), beet greens (leaf part), collards, okra, parsley, leeks and quinoa are among the most oxalate-dense vegetables. Celery, green beans, rutabagas, and summer squash would be considered moderately dense in oxalates. Nuts and seeds almonds, cashews, and peanuts Legumes soybeans, tofu and other soy products Grains Wheat bran, wheat germ, quinoa Others Cocoa, chocolate, and black tea (Source: DeBruyne et al., 2011; Attalla et al., 2014) 2.0 Synthesis in
Heme Alkylation: Drugs containing terminal double-bond (olefins) or triple-bond (acetylenes) can oxidized by CYPs to potent radical intermediates, which alkylate the prosthetic heme group and inactivate the enzyme. For example, allyl-isopropylacetamide (AIA) and ethinylestradiol. 2. Covalent Binding to Apoprotein: Covalent bonding of few drugs to apoprotein causes covalent modification of protein which results in loss of catalytic activity, only if essential amino acids are modified (Kamel et. al., 2013).
The movement of the endocytosed protein which is destined for the apical surface to fuse with and also the movement of extracellular materials from one side of the epithelial cells to another can be termed as transcytosis. With respect to concept, transcytosis can be grouped into three processes namely; endocytosis, exocytosis and transcellular transport (Pravda,2011). Though transcytosis is tightly controlled by the cell it also has the potential for transepithelial movement of bacteria and other pathogens, hence it sometimes becomes an etiologic factor in the body(Pravda,2011). Trancytosis occurs in hepatocytes and this phenomenon is a typical example of transcellular transport . Here the apical membrane form bile and the basolateral membrane face blood.
Enzymes are homogeneous biological catalyst that work by lowering the activation of a reaction pathway or providing a new pathway with a low activation energy. Enzymes are special biological polymers that contain an active site, which is responsible for binding the substrates, the reactants, and processing them into products. As is true of any catalyst, the active site returns to its original state after the products are released. Many enzymes consist primarily of proteins, some featuring organic or inorganic cofactors in their active sites. However, certain ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules can also be biological catalysts, forming ribozymes.
Natural transformations in which the uptake, integration and expression of extracellular DNA occurs under natural populations of bacteria. Through this mechanism bacteria can acquire DNA from foreign species which are not accessible to mobile genetic elements or bacteriophages. The requirement for this process is that, the bacteria should first develop a physiological state of competence. Some bacterial species, such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Haemophilus influenzae, are competent to accept DNA, whereas some others, such as Bacillus subtilis and Streptococcus pneumoniae, become competent after reaching a certain physiological stage in their life cycle (22,15). 2.
Cellular world can be divided into two types, depending on the presence of nuclei inside cells. Eukaryotic cells have a well-defined nucleus surrounded by a nuclear envelope, whereas prokaryotic cells lack this compartment. All bacteria are prokaryotes. Bearze (2015) provided information about the Bacterial Cell Structure and Function. Vibrio cholerae is a gram negative, non-spore forming, curved rod that is oxidase positive.
Rough and smooth the endoplasmic reticulum is formed in a chain-link pattern located throughout the nerve cell. The rough endoplasmic reticulum is cover with small ribosomes, giving it a lumpy appearance. Lysosomes: Lysosomes are multiple membrane-enclosed organelles that deconstruct and digest waste within the cell. Any useless and damaged organelle or food are delivered to the lysosomes to be reconstructed into a fundamental building aspect for the cell. Mitochondria: Mitochondria generate an alternate energy source, chemical energy.
The repressor is a regulatory protein that binds to the operator and blocks transcription of the genes of an operon. Inducers bind to the repressors and they also regulate gene expression. In the process of identifying the three strains of E.coli, ONPG (ortho-nitrophenyl b-D galactoside) was used as an indicator. ONPG is a substrate that can detect B-galactosidase, and when it does, it turns yellow. Sarkosyl was also a detergent used in the lab to lyse open cells.