Aflatoxins Research Paper

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AFLATOXINS: Aflatoxins are naturally occurring mycotoxins that are produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus species of fungi.The name, aflatoxin, was created around 1960 after the discovery that the source of "Turkey 'X' disease" was Aspergillus flavus toxins. Aflatoxins are toxic and among the most carcinogenic substances. After entering the body aflatoxins may be metabolized by the liver to a reactive epoxide intermediate or hydrolated to become the less harmful aflatoxin M1. Although the highest concentrations are found in food crops grown and stored in the warmer areas of the world, the international trading of these important commodities ensures that aflatoxins are not only a problem for the producing nations but are also of concern for importing countries. Aflatoxins M1 and M2 are hydrolated metabolites of aflatoxins B1 and B2 and are produced when cows or other ruminants ingest feed contaminated with these…show more content…
Physical and chemical properties: Aflatoxins are potent toxic , carcinogenic, mutagenic, immunosuppressive agents, produced as secondary metabolites by the fungus Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus on variety of food products. Among 18 different types of aflatoxins identified, major members are • Aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2. • Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is normally predominant in amount in cultures as well as in food products.Pure AFB1 is pale-white to yellow crystalline, odorless solid. SOLUBILITY: Aflatoxins are soluble in methanol,chloroform, actone, acetonitrile. A. flavus typically produces AFB1and AFB2, A. parasiticus produce AFG1and AFG2 as well as AFB1and AFB2 Four other aflatoxins M1, M2, B2A, G2A which may be produced in minor amounts were subsequently isolated from cultures of A. flavus and A.
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