The National Coalition for Pesticide-Free Lawns says, "Of 30 commonly used lawn pesticides, 19 are linked with cancer or carcinogencity, 13 are linked with birth defects, 21 with reproductive effects, 26 with liver or kidney damage, 15 with neurotoxicity, and 11 with disruption of the endocrine
Docking studies of Nitroimidazo-oxazine with Pyridoxine 5'-Phosphate Oxidase M Sathish kumar1 , UCA Jaleel2 CSIR OSDD Research Unit , Bangalore Abstract Mycobacterium tuberculosis continues to be one of the world’s most debilitating and deadly pathogens. PA-824 is a nitroimidazole that has demonstrated bactericidal and sterilizing activity against drug-resistant and non drug-resistant tuberculosis. PA-824 is activated by either a bacterial enzyme or a cofactor, which is a compound that binds to a protein.
Generally Granulocytes can be stained while Agranulocytes cannot. There are three types of granulocytes: neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophil. Neutrophils perform small-scale phagocytosis, which means that they “eat” foreign substances and dead cells. Basophils are involved with allergic reactions and secrete two substances: histamine and heparin. Finally, Eosinophil destroy parasitic infections and combat inflammations.
Introduction Clostridium Botulinum is the bacteria from which Botox is derived from. It can be found in its inactive form in the natural environment, in things such as the forest, cultivated soils and the sediment of lakes and streams, also in the intestinal tracts of mammals and fish. Naturally occurring forms of this bacteria and spores are normally harmless. Problems only arise when the spores transform into vegetative cells and the cell population increases to the point where the bacteria Clostridium Botulinum begin producing the botulinum toxin, a deadly neurotoxin responsible for botulism.1 Botulinum A toxin is one of seven serotypes (A-G), these toxins are responsible for four recognised types of diseases including infant botulism, wound botulism and food-borne and adult intestinal colonization.2, 3
Botulinum Toxin Therapy Botulinum toxin is produced by anerobic bacillus Colstidium botulinum, is a potent neurotoxin. That is inhibits the presynaptic release of acetylcholine and binds to acetylcholine receptors at the postsynaptic membrane.(122 B) There are seven distinct serotypes of Botulinum toxin : A, B, C1, D, E, F, and G. Only Botulinum toxins type A and B are commercially available. Four types of botulinum toxin are approved by FDA for clinical use in the USA. 1. Onabotulinumtoxin A
NEED FOR THE PROJECT Selenium (Se) is a chemical element with atomic number 34. It is a nonmetal with properties that are intermediate between the elements above and below in the periodic table. It is an important microelement, exists in small quantity in microorganisms, plants, animals and humans. It is an essential trace nutrient important to humans and most other animals and act as anti-aging, repairing cells, improving human immunity and preventing carcinogenesis but toxicity occurs when taken in large quantity.
Whereas, some drugs simultaneously modify both the apoprotein and the prosthetic heme group of CYP enzymes. For example, spironolactone (antihypertensive drug) is irreversible inhibitor of the CYP2C and CYP3A subfamilies (Juinn et. al., 1998). 1. Heme Alkylation: Drugs containing terminal double-bond (olefins) or triple-bond (acetylenes) can oxidized by CYPs to potent radical intermediates, which alkylate the prosthetic heme group and inactivate the enzyme.
Coccidioidomycosis Coccidioidomycosis (also called San Joaquin Valley Fever) is a disease caused by breathing in airborne fungus spores. CAUSES The spores that cause this disease come from the fungus Coccidioides immitis. This fungus only contaminates the soils of certain dry regions in the Western Hemisphere. In the U.S., this includes southwestern Texas and the southern regions of California, Arizona, and New Mexico.
Unlike mercury and lead, arsenic is a metalloid; and in some food source; like rice; the biggest problem. Arsenic is toxic and carcinogenic, it is highly abundant in nature with a mean availability of 5mg/kg soil within earth’s crust (Manvi Singh, 2013). One of the reason arsenic is abundant in the soil and water is because of mining of coal and other metals. Therefore arsenic contamination has a widespread reach, in regards to food consumption it not only contaminates sea-based food, but also land-based. Arsenic by soil and water contamination therefore can lead to a direct contamination in agricultural practices and provide health risks.
DDT was widely used after World War 2 for pest control. It is a potent neurotoxin; therefore it damages the nervous system. It can cause impaired motor function and impaired cognition. It has also been linked to numerous other conditions such as infertility and cancer. What are the health effects of pesticides on humans?
Type A is the most powerful toxin, followed by toxin types B and F. Systemic botulism in humans is most commonly associated with toxin types A, B and E.6 All botulinum neurotoxins are produced as relatively inactive, single polypeptide chains. A heavy (H) chain and a light (L) chain linked by a disulphide bond, make up the polypeptide chain.7 Various other nontoxic proteins, which may also have heamagglutinating properties are associated with the botulinum toxin neurotoxin complex.8 The Botulinum toxin is administered by diluting its powder form in saline (sodium chloride) and injecting it directly into the neuromuscular tissue. However, for the botulinum toxin to take effect, it needs between 24-72 hours.
Of the Enterobacteriaceae family, there are genera that are in the normal human flora. Some species such as K. pneumoniae and E. coli are opportunistic pathogens which can capitalize on weakened host defenses and cause food poisoning (Baron, 1996). S. enterica secrete proteins that help aid in intracellular invasion and proliferation (Hensel, 2009). K. pneumoniae is a part of the normal human mouth, skin, and intestine flora, but can wreak havoc if inhaled (Ryan,
The soil surrounding an old disposal facility has been found to be contaminated with the pesticide dieldrin. Dieldrin is an organochlorine pesticide first used as an insecticide on corn and cotton fields. It was later used as an insecticide to control agricultural pests such as termites. Dieldrin is an organic pollutant that is difficult to break down due to the abundance of chlorides attached to the molecule. This compound is insoluble in water but dissolves in organic solvents, fat, and oils.
Studies have indicated that exposure, even at low levels, can quash the immune system contributing to bacterial and viral infections, coughing, skin irritation, and other allergic reactions. The principal reason that stachybotrys is such a huge health issue is because it creates a poison from a fungus named trichothecenes. When inhaled or ingested, stachybotrys causes the following health
Acetone may melt the ice cube quickly because it is commonly used as a solvent. A solvent is a substance that has the ability to dissolve other substances. Acetone is also commonly used as an antiseptic, and is toxic in large quantities. Acetone naturally occurs in plants, and has a chemical formula of C3H6O. Acetone has many other names, such as 2-propanone, propanone, Dimethyl ketone, methyl ketone and, dimethyl formaldehyde and can also be found in vehicle exhaust. Acetone is a clear, flammable, volatile liquid that is used to make drugs, plastics and different fibers.