For example, roundup, an extremely common herbicide used in agriculture, is highly toxic to fish and amphibians. The National Coalition for Pesticide-Free Lawns says, "Of 30 commonly used lawn pesticides, 19 are linked with cancer or carcinogencity, 13 are linked with birth defects, 21 with reproductive effects, 26 with liver or kidney damage, 15 with neurotoxicity, and 11 with disruption of the endocrine
Docking studies of Nitroimidazo-oxazine with Pyridoxine 5'-Phosphate Oxidase M Sathish kumar1 , UCA Jaleel2 CSIR OSDD Research Unit , Bangalore Abstract Mycobacterium tuberculosis continues to be one of the world’s most debilitating and deadly pathogens. PA-824 is a nitroimidazole that has demonstrated bactericidal and sterilizing activity against drug-resistant and non drug-resistant tuberculosis. PA-824 is activated by either a bacterial enzyme or a cofactor, which is a compound that binds to a protein. This prodrug was used as a ligand to bind with the protein PDB ID:1XXO (Pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase complexed with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate). Pyridoxine 5-phosphate oxidase is the enzyme that catalyzes the rate limited step of the
Generally Granulocytes can be stained while Agranulocytes cannot. There are three types of granulocytes: neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophil. Neutrophils perform small-scale phagocytosis, which means that they “eat” foreign substances and dead cells. Basophils are involved with allergic reactions and secrete two substances: histamine and heparin. Finally, Eosinophil destroy parasitic infections and combat inflammations.
Introduction Clostridium Botulinum is the bacteria from which Botox is derived from. It can be found in its inactive form in the natural environment, in things such as the forest, cultivated soils and the sediment of lakes and streams, also in the intestinal tracts of mammals and fish. Naturally occurring forms of this bacteria and spores are normally harmless. Problems only arise when the spores transform into vegetative cells and the cell population increases to the point where the bacteria Clostridium Botulinum begin producing the botulinum toxin, a deadly neurotoxin responsible for botulism.1 Botulinum A toxin is one of seven serotypes (A-G), these toxins are responsible for four recognised types of diseases including infant botulism, wound botulism and food-borne and adult intestinal colonization.2, 3 In all cases, the toxin which is a Zn2+ endopeptidase, acts by blocking cholinergic synapses by cleaving intracellular proteins responsible for the docking and fusion of synaptic vesicles to the plasma membrane.4 Despite its toxicity, botulinum toxins have been found to have great value as pharmaceutical agents and are used to treat numerous diseases
Botulinum Toxin Therapy Botulinum toxin is produced by anerobic bacillus Colstidium botulinum, is a potent neurotoxin. That is inhibits the presynaptic release of acetylcholine and binds to acetylcholine receptors at the postsynaptic membrane. (122 B) There are seven distinct serotypes of Botulinum toxin : A, B, C1, D, E, F, and G. Only Botulinum toxins type A and B are commercially available. Four types of botulinum toxin are approved by FDA for clinical use in the USA. 1.
NEED FOR THE PROJECT Selenium (Se) is a chemical element with atomic number 34. It is a nonmetal with properties that are intermediate between the elements above and below in the periodic table. It is an important microelement, exists in small quantity in microorganisms, plants, animals and humans. It is an essential trace nutrient important to humans and most other animals and act as anti-aging, repairing cells, improving human immunity and preventing carcinogenesis but toxicity occurs when taken in large quantity. It is also a basic component of various enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and thioredoxin reductase (TR), which involve in the antioxidant protection of cells (Rotruck et al., 1973; Birringer et al., 2002).
Whereas, some drugs simultaneously modify both the apoprotein and the prosthetic heme group of CYP enzymes. For example, spironolactone (antihypertensive drug) is irreversible inhibitor of the CYP2C and CYP3A subfamilies (Juinn et. al., 1998). 1. Heme Alkylation: Drugs containing terminal double-bond (olefins) or triple-bond (acetylenes) can oxidized by CYPs to potent radical intermediates, which alkylate the prosthetic heme group and inactivate the enzyme.
Coccidioidomycosis Coccidioidomycosis (also called San Joaquin Valley Fever) is a disease caused by breathing in airborne fungus spores. CAUSES The spores that cause this disease come from the fungus Coccidioides immitis. This fungus only contaminates the soils of certain dry regions in the Western Hemisphere. In the U.S., this includes southwestern Texas and the southern regions of California, Arizona, and New Mexico. This fungus is also relatively common in dry areas in Mexico, Central America, and the northern countries of South America.
Unlike mercury and lead, arsenic is a metalloid; and in some food source; like rice; the biggest problem. Arsenic is toxic and carcinogenic, it is highly abundant in nature with a mean availability of 5mg/kg soil within earth’s crust (Manvi Singh, 2013). One of the reason arsenic is abundant in the soil and water is because of mining of coal and other metals. Therefore arsenic contamination has a widespread reach, in regards to food consumption it not only contaminates sea-based food, but also land-based. Arsenic by soil and water contamination therefore can lead to a direct contamination in agricultural practices and provide health risks.
DDT was widely used after World War 2 for pest control. It is a potent neurotoxin; therefore it damages the nervous system. It can cause impaired motor function and impaired cognition. It has also been linked to numerous other conditions such as infertility and cancer. What are the health effects of pesticides on humans?