Jim Crow laws were the many state and local laws that enforced racial segregation in the United States between the late 1870s and 1964. These segregation laws were enacted primarily by Democrats, many of whom were supporters of White supremacism both before and after the American Civil War. Jim Crow laws were more than just laws — they negatively shaped the lives of many African-Americans. After the Civil War and the outlaw of slavery, the Republican government tried to rebuild relations with African-Americans during the Reconstruction Era. They did so by passing laws that helped protect those who used to be slaves, also known as “freedmen”, as well as to those who were already free before the war in the South.
‘Slavery was the root cause of secession’. ‘November 6 1860, Lincoln was elected president of America which resulted in panic emerging in the South’ . The election of Lincoln as president who was a Republican leader meant that ideologies, movements and values from the North would be implemented in the South which meant the abolition of slavery. Slavery was a huge characteristic of the South as the economy; politics; social status and psychological mind-sets were influenced by the process of slavery. The southern white population then derived the idea of secession which meant the South would gain independence from Northern aggression .
Around 1960s, many people who disagreed with racism participated in sit-in protests at public facilities which were only for White people. By doing this strike, some public facilities stopped segregation, and many people understood how acute the racism was in America. ("The Sit-In Movement" from U.S. History.org) In 1963, Martin Luther King, Jr. spoke to public in front of the Lincoln Memorial. The name of the speech was “I Have a Dream”. He argued that Black people should have rights of life, liberty, and pursuit of happiness.
The Thirteenth through Fifteenth Amendments A Compromise Between Slave Tradition and the United States Mei Harter English Language Arts 8A Mrs. Finkell 15 February 2018 Do you know how many painful practices that slaves had, before the rise of the Thirteenth through the Fifteenth Amendments? In America’s history, the color of a man defined how he would live. This rule was treacherous for the slaves, who were mostly made up of the African American race. As a result, many slaves were ripped away from their families. They were forced to walk in chains; slaves were sold, starved, and left to die.
Amongst the Civil War, General Patrick Cleburne had mentioned how, “slavery, from being one of our chief sources of strength," had evolved into "one of our chief sources of weakness" (Bodenner). When the Emancipation Proclamation was released, all the slaves were freed leaving the white men to do the work for themselves (Holzer). This changed the course of the war because the white men were no longer free to fight in the war because they had to do their own work (Holzer). This meant that the Southern army no longer had many soldiers. It also meant that the North now had many more soldiers, who were also former slaves (Holzer).
The freedom in the new society led to more improvements and beliefs on how to make the changed society better. During the period of Reconstruction, three new amendments passed that had to do with the freedom and rights of freed African Americans. The 13th Amendment, passed in 1865, abolished slavery once and for all. Passed in 1866, the 14th Amendment gave everyone who was born in America full citizenship. Lastly, the 15th Amendment said that no citizen can be denied the right to vote because of your race, the color of your skin, or of previous conditions of enslavement.
After the Civil War ended, bringing freedom to enslaved African-Americans, they still had one more major social issue to fight, segregation. Segregation lasted from the end of the Civil War to the 1960s. During this time, the South and the North both faced segregation, but the South primarily faced the most racial tensions. This time frame in American history was known as the Jim Crow era. Additionally, African-Americans faced many hardships during this time, such as unclean bathrooms, unequal and separate water fountains, voting restrictions, and awful schooling compared to whites.
The fugitive slave laws were disliked by Northerners, but they were laws that must be followed as they were enacted under the Constitution. Document C provides an example of the problems the newly enforced laws created. Free African Americans had to constantly be aware of being kidnapped or mistaken for a runaway slave. Slave Hunters would often kidnap free blacks and claim they were runaway slaves, so they could make a profit of them. Although some people took advantage of the fugitive slave laws, there were groups of abolitionists who still fought to end slavery, despite what the Constitution upheld.
Racism and legislation are tools used exclusively by whites to oppress people of color, and to keep whites in power. To begin, Angela Davis makes the point that, since the united states declared their independence, people of color have been treated as second class citizens. It began with slavery, which made it so African Americans had virtually no rights whatsoever. From there it progressed to Jim Crow laws, which were a way of taking power from blacks and keeping whites in power. They did it by giving them as few rights as tolerable, such as; blacks may not attend the same schools or even eat in the same restaurants as whites.
Annabelle Wintson Bower History 8A March 12, 2018 Title Although the slavery was abolished in 1865, the rights given to African Americans were not nearly equal to those of white Americans. After slavery was abolished, inequality in American society ran high, and many laws were put in place to restrict the rights and abilities of African Americans. Some laws include the Jim Crow Laws (1870 to 1950s) and the Supreme Court Ruling of Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) that ruled that there could be “separate but equal” facilities and services for people of color and white Americans. These policies and laws were unfair and discriminatory towards people of color and change was desperately needed. The Montgomery Bus Boycott of 1955 to 1965 pushed the Civil Rights Movement because it gave rise to Martin Luther King Jr. as a leader of The Civil Rights Movement, proved peaceful protests as an effective form of social activism and lead to the desegregation of public transportation.