During the civil war, many Americans lost and risked their lives to fight for their beliefs, emancipating the slaves or the White supremacy. The civil war resulted with the freedom of slaves and the period of Reconstruction (1865-1877). The Reconstruction tried to solve the problem of what would happen to the freed men and how the government would reintegrate the Southern States into the Union. Both of the said events caused social, political, and economic changes to American society.
The Freedmen’s Bureau was started to help blacks be integrated back into society, and to teach them. This group was created by the Federal government. Radical Southerners did not like this idea at all. In return, they created laws called the Black Codes to oppress African Americans. These acts made sure the former slaves signed labor contracts, and they would be fined or forced into unpaid labor if they didn’t.
Reconstruction a Failure or Success? Throughout the years, America has gone through many different political changes. Many presidents selected with different plans for our future. Sadly, many of those objectives have failed or came to an end.
They terrorized Blacks in the South and murdered many by lynching. They also used fear and intimidation to suppress African American suffrage. It was not until the Ku Klux Klan act of 1871 that the government made an attempt at cracking down on the terrorists and defending the rights of African Americans to vote. However, this act became almost obsolete after President Grant’s term.
Historically speaking, except for a short time during reconstruction, African Americans in the South were denied basic political and economic rights. As a result of Martin Luther King Jr.’s campaign in Selma, Alabama, the Voting Rights act of 1965 was passed. This act meant that literacy test, test used for voting discrimination against African Americans, were removed from voting requirements, as well as the poll tax, another tool used to keep African Americans from voting. Because of this, the percentage of black adults who registered to vote nearly doubled between 1964 and 1966. The ultimate goal of the movement was to achieve equality, and once African Americans were granted basic political rights, and could vote and participate in politics, their economic and social conditions would also slowly become better.
What were the Black Codes? Answer: Black Codes were a tactic created and supported by Southern states to restrict African American freedmen from gaining enough wages to support their families. Although it granted them the right to marriage and owning their own property, they could not testify against whites or even vote. Punishments against African Americans were ridiculously unfair compared to the ones white landowners received for far greater offenses.
Eventually over time and after a civil war, rights had been given to African Americans through the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments. Although these amendments gave rights, they were met by the force of discrimination, segregation, and the Jim Crow Laws. All of which blocked the rights or freedoms for African Americans. The Jim Crow Laws were laws that disenfranchised African Americans by making them pay a poll tax, pass a literacy test, and by making it to where African Americans could only vote if their grandfather had. This was called the Grandfather Clause.
These laws were named after a traveling minstrel show character, and basically set up the law to be biased against African-Americans, deciding many issues in favor of whites. In Source C, it says, “By 1914 every Southern state had passed laws that created two separate societies- one black, the other white. This artificial structure was maintained by denying the franchise to blacks through the use of devices such as grandfather clauses, poll taxes, and literacy tests. It was further strengthened by the creation of separate facilities in every part of society, including schools, restaurants, streetcars, health-care institutions, and cemeteries.” By reading this, you start to find out that even after the Civil War, blacks were not truly free.
This was seen as a great change in racial segregation and had a huge impact on the civil-rights movement in America. Many years after the American Civil War, The civil rights of the African American population was constrained due to state laws and discrimination, which led to them not having the right to vote, the right to be treated equally and have the freedom of speech. By the 1950’s racial segregation became legal due to “Jim Crow” laws in many states which resulted in the separation of colours in public places, work places, transport, Education and of course Sport which include Baseball at the time. Civil rights movements commenced in the following years which led to the de-segregation of Public Schools in 1954.
In the early stages of war, Lincoln was “receiving pressure from the abolitionists and had lost to the Confederates in a “series of military victories” (Source F). Abraham Lincoln’s two Confiscation Acts, the first in 1861, “declared that slaves escaping to union lines would be considered contraband” which aided the escaped black man to join the Union army, and the second, in 1862, gave “the president the authority to recruit black men for the Union army” which leads us to believe that the President’s actions with regards to slaves during the Civil war, were motivated by “military strategy and necessity” (Source J). These two acts “provided a policy for military commanders and led the way for the Emancipation Proclamation” (Source F). By 1862, “Lincoln began to see slavery as part of the war and began toying with the idea of emancipation as a way to undermine the Confederate war effort” (Source E). Although the president was helping the slaves to freedom, he realised that in altering their inferior position in the South, his enemy would be weakened and he would have the upper hand.
Life was worse for African-Americans after the Civil War for numerous reasons. There were the legal actions that the Southern whites took. There was also the KKK and the Election of 1876. To begin with, the Southern whites took legal actions against the African-Americans. They created the Jim Crow Laws.
Confederate people out of power all together. The southern white government had a range of ways they controlled how the newly freed slaves lived their lives and what freedoms they could have and which ones the government didn’t want them to have but over time these barriers were
According to William Hoar about the Black Codes, “In an attempt to bring order, a number of states legally adopted Black Codes prohibiting the often uneducated and illiterate Blacks from sitting on juries, carrying weapons, committing adultery, being vagrants, and violating curfew and segregation laws”. John Alexander Carroll and Odie B. Faulk in Home of the Brave, “That blacks had to have a steady occupation and they carried heavy penalties for violations of labor contracts.” Eventually the codes effectively made racism legal (Hoar). The next misstep of the Reconstruction was the Ku Klux Klan.
After Bacon’s Rebellion, indentured servitude was no longer an option given to black people. Due to a new set of laws called slave codes, freedom and equity became almost
The south was especially notorious for lynching blacks. About eighty-three percent of people lynched were black. In 1922, "The Dyer Anti-Lynching Bill" was an effort to stop lynching altogether in the United States. The people behind this bill were obviously not okay with lynching, and saw it as an unlawful and immoral thing to do to another human being.