However, with diversity comes inequalities that people of color face throughout their lives. A particular issue in the United States, specifically in education, is unequal opportunities and treatment in regard to race. Research shows that students from single-parent black families had a high chance of dropping out and participating in illicit behavior (Hallinan 54). While the issue of race is a complicated issue to breach for
Children of color are over-represented in single-parent households with fifty-five percent of Black children and thirty-one percent of Hispanic children being raised in a single-parent household. (Vespa). The lessons parents will teach their son or daughter help provide the children with the skills and traits that will prepare them for adulthood. When one parent is missing, more specifically the father, the effect has an everlasting feel to
(2009) argues, “no single support is sufficient to ensure children’s school success” (p.4). My research is necessary to give community stakeholders an evidence based outline of which strategies should be implemented to effectively serve the needs of African American young adults. This is vitally important as negative statistics for Black males continue to climb even as resources to improve their condition decline. This research will increase the body of knowledge in the sociological fields
1. The health issue we will discuss is residential segregation. This is the physical separation of two or more groups into different neighborhoods, or a form of segregation that “sorts population groups into various neighborhoods contexts and shapes the living environment at the neighborhood level. In addition, we will discuss a health disparity, which is defined as inequalities that exist when members of certain population groups do not benefit from the same health status as other groups. Racial residential segregation is a fundamental cause of racial disparities in health.
Most of the book is devoted to in-depth studies of individual middle class and working class students. Those studies reveal differences in how parents nurture their children and why middle class children learn skills essential for later success that their poorer counterparts don 't learn. In order to research on “inequality” she started to observe twelve families (six white, five Black, and one interracial) with children nine and ten years old. The twelve families are part of a larger study of eighty-eight children from the middle-class, working-class, and poor.
Even though I have had these disadvantages and probably many others, I am not going to let it stop me from being successful. I have made it this far so I can’t stop now. In this paper, I talked about my social location and identity, my life experiences and my privileges and disadvantages. The point of this paper is to allow me to reflect on who I am and at this point I think that I am a motivated, hardworking, young African American woman with a bright future ahead of
A common theme that resonates in a high poverty school is the demographic make-up, always having high concentrations of African Americans and Hispanic students. With this common theme come challenges, including but not limited to low student achievement, unequal distribution of resources, and low expectations of student outcomes. All of these challenges provide a disadvantage for children who grow up in a neighborhood where there are racial disparities. According to Castañeda (2013), black and Latino students perform at a lower rate than their white peers in both reading and math (p. 57). This statistic is no surprise for most educators who are deeply involved in educating students in this setting.
On the other hand, African Americans, are now twenty times as likely to live in poor community. A large number of African American families, coming from the underprivilaged quarter of comminity an ages ago, continue to live in such community today. Although, for African african families moving out of such community is much more difficult for them. But only a small number of white families who lived in the poor quarter of community an ages ago still do so. This is a clear example of how race can be related to social
Unequal Childhoods is an ethnography outlining the study done by Annette Lareau which researched how socioeconomic classes impact parenting among both white and African American families. She used both participant observation and interviewing. 12 families participated in this study where she came to conclusions on whether they displayed parenting styles of concerted cultivation or natural growth based of their socioeconomic status. Concerted cultivation is a parenting style where the parent(s) are fully invested in creating as much opportunity for their child as possible, but results in a child with a sense of entitlement. An example of this would be a parent who places their children in a wide array of extracurricular activities and/or actively speaks to educators about the accommodations their child needs to effectively learn.
Mark repeadtly says that plenty of oppertunintes and resources are presented to african american children however they are not always utilized. He naively states that if he were a “poor black kid” he would be able to use all resources. However Marks contradicts himself, “so many kids from west Philadelphia don't even know these opportunities exist for them. ”Marks can’t have it both ways. On the one hand, he argues that there are always resources and opportunities available and that these kids are just not taking them.
Segregation and its inequality effects have left a very heavy impression on the city of Berkeley. While it would be wrong to ignore the interventions taken up to decrease the achievement gap as expressed by neoliberal scholars above, we can not turn blind eye to the several post desegregation academic issues still prevailing. Segregation has lawfully been abolished (Landsberg 2015), however, obverse statistics exemplify a reality of unequal opportunities and resources amongst children (Yang & Qiu 2016). Daunting political history and extreme marginalization have forced individuals into a poverty trap, which educational programs must partake in, in order to alleviate the ramifications of (Wade 2015). Although the Berkeley Unified School District
School choice programs can be defined as programs that utilize the family’s choice of school separate from the family’s choice of residence. School choice allocates for more schooling options compared to the limited choices due to assignment based off neighborhood. The main research question is how does school choice affect racial segregation. While racial integration remains a significant concern, many people are also concerned with the extent to which students who are challenging to educate, regardless of race, are concentrated in specific schools (Kahlenberg, 2000). The question can also include the effects of school choice programs on segregation through race and classism.
It was found that long term exposure in low poverty neighborhoods benefited females more than males (Leventhal & Dupere, 2011). Females had less psychological distress, less participation in crime, sexual activity, and substance use. Females were more likely to finish secondary school and have better reading comprehension (Leventhal & Dupere, 2011). For males the only significant improvement was reading comprehension, with inconsistent outcomes for other activities such as crime participation and substance use (Leventhal & Dupere, 2011). The study shows that living in a low poverty neighborhood for females can lead to better educational outcomes.
As a student who grew up in a low income community, I have witnessed the direct effect one’s zip code plays on the quality of education received. Although I grew up in a low-income community, I was fortunate enough to have attended a magnet high school that promoted academic excellence. However, this was not the case for many of my peers I attended middle school with. About 80% of my middle school classmates ended up attending our zone high school that was not nearly as rigorous or led by dedicated and passionate teachers as the magnet school I attended. Because of their zip code, some of these students were raped of their chances of receiving adequate education that would have propelled them to attain a college degree.
Moreover, McEachern (2014) cited that the achievement gaps are found in all education systems. Studies, concentrated in the United States but also conducted in other countries, have considered racial and ethnic achievement gaps (Lee, 2002, 2004), urban-rural achievement gaps (Graham & Provost, 2012; Provasnik, 2007), gender achievement gaps (Benson, 2005b; Marks, 2008; Shafiq, 2011), private-public school achievement gaps (C. Lubienski, Weitzel, & S.T. Lubienski, 2009), and more. Certain groups of children may perform below average based on a variety of factors, such as poverty, family composition, teacher/school quality, school access, technology, and motivation, among others (Davis-Kean, 2005; Entwisle & Alexander, 1992; Rankin & Quane,