The advantages brought by the colonial era to the African continent abound. According to the author, one of the most important benefit of the colonialism is formal education, modern way of curing diseases and environmental sanitation. It was however argued that the purpose of colonialism was not meant for the benefit of the African people. In case of disarticulating affairs related to government and political structure the author has indicated that––the boundaries of the countries themselves were mostly totally artificial, they had been created at the European politicians with little or no regard for African’ multitude of pre-colonial nation-state and small-scale village communities. Since, the African Nationalist said that independence given to African is false because true freedom comes with economic independence and the author calls this kind of practice as Neo-colonialism.
Booth’s entire essay sought to affirm that Christianity is an African religion by showing how much its introduction into Africa was carried out by the black people who led the establishment of churches related to the Western controlling of distinguishable African character. Christianity was a factor of great change in Africa. It brought entirely new opportunities to some, and undermined the power of others. The spread of Christianity paved the way for many commercial speculators, and, in its original European form, denied people pride in their culture and ceremonies until Africans were able to fuse their own culture into it to truly make it their
Negritude is a technique to shift the traditional drama which speaks for the community as a whole to a drama for the educated elite and new middle classes. This genre, Negritude is an apt instance of the problem of mediation between elevated values of the old and its place in history. The issue of commitment is inescapable in a literature of black consciousness where freedom, social justice and racial equality are pervasive concerns. It is very difficult for him to affirm certain values and equally difficult for him to reform them. In this context Chinua Achebe’s negritude is known for its watershed in the development of the African literature in English, gaining new mastery of the emotionally charged theme of cultural conflicts with a balanced commitment of objectivity, he utilized history with false idealization of the past, thereby admitting his own people’s good as well as the bad side providing the message in a language of objectivity, achieving a delicate balance between the need to write for an international readership as well as having the desire to reflect and sustain in them in Nigerian context.
Mbiti has taken a step forward in trying to Christianity and Islam must be considered indigenous and traditional religions in Africa, because of their deep historical roots of the continent (223). So powerful is the argument may seem, it is worth noting that the view has not gained acceptance by many researchers. Some researchers, for example, E. Bolaji Intogou, Christopher J. Opuku Ejizu Kofi Asare and others want to keep and use the "traditional" word for the initial experience of the sacred is grown from the African people and the expression of this practical experience through various different ecological and socio-historical. What should be stressed, however, that the term "traditional" does not mean that African religion is static or unchanging from one season to another. According to the original meaning in Latin, trader, the term implies that the life experience and expression are delivered from one generation to another.
The main and central objective of this dissertation is an effort to evaluate the post colonial thematic preoccupations in the African society and literature. It is an analysis of post colonial thematic preoccupations in the literary work ‘Arrow of God’ by Chinua Achebe and ‘Cry – The Beloved Country’ by Alan Paton. Both novelists have tried to depict the realistic condition of native African colonized people. Imperialism is a kind of aspect in which one country is trying to seek in expanding its power and authority by conquering other countries or by setting up economic and political dominance on the countries. Imperialism starts when one country or nation takes over smaller countries for their land and natural resources.
It is an undeniable fact that colonialism has shaped and reshaped the social, economic, political and cultural dimensions in Africa. Many view colonialism as a force that robbed Africa of its culture, history and philosophy. This reality consequently has caused antagonistic attitude and relationship with the west. Therefore,
Santeria The most apperceived designation for the religious practices of Yoruba scions in Cuba is Santeria. Santeria “way of the saints,” is a designation that accentuates the Roman Catholic elements of this religion, which are visually perceived as symbolic layers circumventing what is understood to be at its core an African religion. Mercedes Cros Sandoval the Afro-Cuban religious philomath argues that Regla Lucumí (rule or way of Lucumí) is the most congruous name for Santeria, this is because practitioners use “Lucumí” to refer to themselves and their language.
It also perpetuates the single narrative about Africa and African people. This is because it creates a possibility members of its audience that do not have enough knowledge about Africa to think of Africans as a single cultural unit as it groups African works of literature into a category titled “…literature” which might imply that these works are one or a uniform group of people. With these limitations, it can be concluded that the category African literature is not an efficient way to group literatures found on the African continent. It is therefore more proper, as Saro-Wiwa suggests to rename it, ‘African Literatures’ (Saro-Wiwa 157) because that way its audience will understand that the category is not a collection of works that belong to a particular literature (Africa’s literature) but rather a collection of works that belong to a multitude of literatures found in Africa and hence the category will be able to express the linguistic and literary diversity that exists in the African continent and also curb the single narrative about Africa and African
Racism dictated the emergence of a slavery ideology. Legal freedom was a highly valued commodity, it’s sad to say it was rejected on the basis of colour, the mark of servitude or inferiority (Ed. Verene Shepherd & Hilary McD. Beckles, Caribbean Slavery in
From the understanding of the empowerment theory, one can see its positive relevance to South Africa’s decolonization and Africanization process. This can be so in that, a critical analysis on pre 1994 South Africa shows that the Republic was under white colonial rule of the National Party which sort to increase patterns of colonial discrimination of the Black South Africans through the devolution of political structures and the promotion of a putative independence in the African reserves Laura (2012). Race also played a pivotal role during this colonial period. The White rule was characterized by installation of oppression, denial of opportunities and poverty on the black majority based on belief in biological racial difference and hierarchy. This exemplifies the notion of oppression, discrimination and powerlessness suffered by the marginalized individuals and groups in some societies as argued by the empowerment theory.