In the 1830s, indentured labourers were introduced into the British colonies to replace the freed slaves on the sugar plantation. The rise of wage labour within this period is often explored within the context of the decline of contracted labour, and the developing abolitionist movement that would slowly dismantle the transatlantic slave trade and transatlantic slavery. This was as a result of the depletion of the Taino race within the Caribbean and the need for cheap labour to carry out the manual labour needs in the sugar plantations. Over two million Asians, Africans, Indians and South Pacific islanders signed long-term labour contracts in return for free passage overseas, modest wages, and other benefits in hope of a better life (Craton 1997 p415). These indentured workers came to the West Indies with their different religious beliefs, culture, intellectual concepts and ways of life.
The Spanish colonies and the New England colonies were different in the resources the colonies collected in order to achieve economic success. The main source of economic gain in Central and South America was gold and silver because there was a plentiful amount of the resources in the Americas. As time went on and the gold and silver resources depleted, the Spanish turned to sugar plantations, which are large scale farms. New England made their money by trading away raw materials, such as timber, furs, and textiles like wool and cotton. Later New England made a large portion of their money from fishing.
During the early to mid eighteen hundreds, Britain, and subsequently, the British Empire underwent a change of attitudes towards slavery. Beginning in the 1807 when Britain outlawed slavery, the development of indentured servitude occurred. Following this, African slaves who were freed, nevertheless, the grueling plantation work still needed people to till the fields and harvest the crops. Indentured servitude of Indians was an, as of yet, mostly untapped resource. The largely illiterate Indian populace, not knowing the agreements in which they were signing, were forced into similar roles and conditions as the recently freed Africans.
The laws forced different racial groups to live separately and develop separately, in grossly unequal conditions. Apartheid was unique in that it made the social culture of racial segregation in South Africa more enforced than it already was through legislation when the Afrikaner Nationalist Party came to power in 1948. Anti-Apartheid movements in the late 1950’s and early 1960s took many forms domestically and to an extent internationally. In 1959, a boycott campaign started by exiled South African anti-Apartheid activists took place in England with aim of influencing and not overthrowing the South African government through sanctions of South African goods. However, an otherwise peaceful tactic towards reform was transformed by the shootings at Sharpeville, a police led massacre of peaceful protesters killing 69 and wounding 181.
In Eric Williams ' work titled “Slavery and Capitalism”, he describes how the development of slavery marked several social and economic changes in society, especially in the nature of social hierarchies and relationships. Sven Beckert, in “The Empire of Cotton”, reiterates Williams ' argument by describing cotton cultivation in America, of which the backbone was slavery. In this economic system, production thrived because of the subordination of the labour force. Slavery was a cost effective method of employing labour. For instance, in the case of America, large quantities of cotton were produced at a cheaper cost, and as a result, were sold in the market for low prices.
The political identities play a significant role in the understanding of Williams, Dubois, and Nkrumah’s Pan-Africanism and how it has shaped their lives. Henry Sylvester Williams was born in Trinidad in 1869 where he eventually moved to London to organize the formation of the Pan-African Association. This resulted in the first Pan-African conference in 1900, the beginnings of the modern Pan-African movement. Several historians claim Henry Sylvester Williams originally conceived the term “Pan-African”. His abolitionist notions made him desire the removal of all forms of British colonialism from Africa and the West Indies, thus shaping Williams’ political identity.
During the succession of periodization Five (1750 C.E.-1900 C.E.) leading into periodization Six (1900-present day), there were many causes and consequences of new imperialism in Africa. New imperialism was caused due to the Europeans’ desire to acquire new land and resources, along with the introduction of social darwinism. The consequences of new imperialism were the denial of natural rights to Africans, as well as the religion of Christianity rising to become a more eminent feature of African society. To begin with, Europeans believed that in order to build on their acquisitions and improve the availability of new resources they would need to conquer Africa.
Machiavelli’s brutish method to win wars leads to the downfall of his own population which More evades. The population fluctuations create instability for the economy due to the inconsistency of citizens going to war. Moreover, the prince rules an empire which means that those who under in the prince’s rule must obey the fact that he wants to obtain more land: “destructor Cuello imperio . . .
“Government of Africans, by Africans for Africans.” Even though the ANC and the PAC were banned in 1960, African nationalism did not collapse. The Black Consciousness Movement, which developed in the late 1960’s, led by Steve Biko, continued to promote pride in the Black identity through culture, history and language. After the South African War (1899-1912) and the formation of the Union of South Africa in 1910, many Afrikaners resented the English heritage and links to the British and so there was a call for Afrikaner Nationalism. The Afrikaners, led by JBM Hertzog, formed the National Party in 1914. They wanted to promote white Afrikaner interest and have a greater say in their country.
Although it is inaccurate to limit the governance system of British imperialism throughout the 19th and 20th century as indirect, it is relevant to underline that the British majoritarly pursued indirect colonialism especially in Africa. Indeed, after centuries of settler and direct colonialism, British imperialism soon came to realize the advantage of an indirect type of rule in their newest colonies when considering the economic benefits but also the pre-colonial societies of Africa. Indeed, most of these African states were characterized by complex and highly populated pre-colonial areas and this discouraged many British settlers and more importantly perhaps, discouraged British institutional establishments in those countries. This led
After fighting for America’s independence the nation was faced with the situation of developing their own government; with that idea the Articles of Confederation were made as a way to define the government’s structure. With the articles came dysfunction, and a lack of authority. Consequently the dysfunction caused division in the nation, separating the people into two political parties, Federalist and anti-federalist. The parties developed over time and discord, with the development of the Constitution into the Federalist Party and the Democratic Republican Party. The two parties, the Federalist, and the Democratic Republicans, based on their backgrounds and means of income, opposed each other with differing political and economic views.
The French Indian War was the starting point of the American Revolution. Britain began to neglect the Colonies which lead to America gained self rule and military experience. Along with that, taxes pushed by Britain created resentment from the colonies and therefore resulted in colonial backlash. Part of the problem was the separation between Britain and the Colonies. The Colonies were an agrarian society, while Britain was evolving into an industrial society, which created a lot of cultural diversity between the two.
Prior to the French and Indian War, the colonies were pretty self sufficient in the economic realm. They were able to trade with basically whoever they wanted to, participating lucratively in the Triangular Trade. With this, many merchants lined the coast of the Americas, patiently awaiting the incoming slaves from Africa or the goods from England, while greedily exporting their tobacco. Many established a life off of this competitive economic system, trying to soak up the finite wealth of the world. After the French and Indian War, which was a war fought for control of more land against the French, the English realized that they needed to tighten their strings in
As standing armies were marching along the debate floor another issue was power of state authority over Federal authority. This clash in authority came from the juiced up legislatures which were often extremely powerful under the Articles. Considered by Rutland as ”a loose, incomplete agreement”, the issue for Anti-Federalists was the weak powerful government was morphing into an aristocratic system. Rutland points out a few words from George Mason, who believed the Constitution “Would erect at the outset a moderate aristocracy. Which would evolve into either a monarchy or a corrupt, tyrannical aristocracy”(42)and called on the hatred of monarchy by local people.
The French and Indian War can be argued to have the most effect on altering the relations between Britain and the Colonies. The relationship between these two power houses began very subtle, as England followed through with a policy of salutary neglect toward the Colonies. The consequence of the war caused the Political and the Economic state of Britain to changed dramatically, causing them to act differently towards the Colonies. This made the Ideologies of the colonies change greatly. Becoming a winner of a mass of land was great to reward to Britain, but this caused them to change the way that they were going to govern, especially in North America.