James Chukwum Okoye is the author of chapter 5 of the book, From Every People Nation. He states that there are many African religions, however, in the modern context, “Christianity should be in creative interaction with traditional African religions.” 116. This appears to be an argument without any proof of what the claim is. In other words, I would argue saying Okoye does not provide any or necessary information for the readers to investigate further why and how the claim is true or valid.
Narrative Chapter One Olaudah Equiano’s Interesting Narrative, is a special case of literature history. Years before the writings of Fredrick Douglass, it spoke of the horrible truths of slavery to persuade its readers to listen to its reason. Though Equiano’s authenticity to his story being that of his own life can be questionable at times, his writings still strive for the greater purpose of “promoting the interest of humanity” (688). Equiano starts the first chapter and the beginning of his story explaining the life he had in Africa.
West Africa had already had a religion before Islam came into the picture. Even after Islam came, Africans took a while to stop believing in animism (the belief in the existence of spirits separable from bodies) and polytheism (the belief in or worship of more than one god). In 1000 CE, Africa saw its first very important change when Muhammad and his followers came and preached the religion of Islam. African rulers, who had begun to adopt Islam, began to take over cultures still with other religions. From 1000-1500 CE, religion saw changes influenced by foreigners, political systems, social systems, and
To me, this “creolization” of Christianity and African tradition was a means to keep a piece of the slaves’ original religious background alive. This creolization was also a means of an identifier while being stripped of their African identity. In the beginning of the book, Raboteau describes the traditions and cultures of Africans; the “spirit possession,” the dance, and the emotion they experienced as they praised and worshipped their many gods. In addition, he talks about the pressure of “Salt-water” Africans to convert and adopt new traditions. Because of this pressure “seasoned” slaves put on “salt-water” slaves, forced conversion to American slavery customs was inevitable.
Black Sacred Cosmos also, involves African Americans conversion to Christianity during the era of slavery. The Black Sacred Cosmos has shaped the African American culture during slavery and after slavery. It is the foreseeable future in the divine, Jesus Christ, which dominates the Black Sacred Cosmos. It deals with the same orthodox beliefs as Caucasian Americans, with certain theological views, as God being the anchor of their faith (Lincoln, 395 Kindle Edition). 2.
Ideas of racial superiority originate as far back as the Middle Ages. In addition, attitudes were sanctioned and further developed among Europeans during the Renaissance and Reformation. Europeans increasingly came in contact with African cultures and people of darker skin complexion. With uneasy feelings about differing cultures and physical appearance came judgement and justification for abhorrent behavior. Religion was used a weapon to offer rationale for physical enslavement of Africans (Fredrickson, 2003).
Malcolm X, a very vocal leader for African Americans, was prevalent during the 1960s; however, after his hajj, a religious obligation that every Muslim must fulfill that involves a pilgrimage to their holy city of Mecca, he began to change his views away from The Nation of Islam (NOI), a section of Islam that had a radical focus toward the African American Civil Rights movement and its structure was based on Islamic elements. Malcolm X was known for his extremist views that did not condemn violence and his support for separation. One can easily see the views in which X held by comparing them to his foil: Martin Luther King, one of the most prominent African American civil rights leaders in American history. Malcolm held these radical views for the majority of his public life until his separation from the NOI and conversion to orthodox or mainstream Islam.
An example of this was his earlier works such as the Common Sense which did not have a stance in women’s rights. It would only be in his later works such as Rights of Man Part II where he would actually state the importance of women having equal rights to that of men; which included political rights and especially suffrage. Paine also supported the abolition of slavery, though he did not write anything that would influence the decision of abolishing slavery. But some might argue that he was the unknown author of African Slavery in America essay, however there is no further evidence to support this. Despite personal involvement in the situation, he was working with peers that were some of the very first members to start an abolitionist organization.
“But stories were already gaining ground that the white man had not only brought a religion but also a government.” (Achebe 155). In the novel, Things Fall Apart, by Chinua Achebe the main character Okonkwo lives in Nigeria, Africa where a group of white missionaries come to convert the Nigerians to Christianity. The Christian Missionaries believed that their set of beliefs were superior to other beliefs and that they were the only ones who should be followed. They pushed their religion upon other people in the Nigerian tribes, and they successfully converted a few.
“Things Fall Apart”, a novel written by Chinua Achebe about Africa through the character Okonkwo, a man who Achebe uses to illustrate the complexity Igbo culture, contrary to what the Europeans portrayed Africa as. One main focus of the book is to counter the single story, which is the idea that an area is represented by one story, similar to a stereotype. However, differing from a stereotype a single story often completely misrepresents something, and in this case Africa. Europeans had been the only ones writing about Africa, describing all the culture as problematic for being different, rather than looking at what African culture really is. Achebe was one of the first to write about African culture for westerners to read about, making Things Fall Apart a true innovation in writing.
No data could be shared about descendent connections or variation between continents; they solely wanted to point out the differences, the eugenics, between those in the African Burial Ground and the Euro-Americans. Blakey and Roche (1997) comment that members of the New York descendant community often identified this research troubling and that, “the methodologically constructed black identity by MFAT is dissociated from any particular culture and history, creating an identity that is culture-less, history-less and biologically shallow” (p.88 & 89). Therefore, why should someone’s relative be disturbed for the promotion of discrimination based on race? The research that MFAT was trying to publish was harming to the dead and the descendant communities.
Phillis Ẃheatly’s poem, ¨ On Being Brought from Africa to America¨ challenges the individual rights because the colonist do not want the colored people to believe in God nor to be educated. Wheatley explains how the colonist do not think that the colored people should be part of the Christian world, they do not believe that colored people should be believing in God. Wheatley states, ¨ Remember, Christians, Negroes, black as Cain, May be refin´, and join th´angelic train.¨ As Wheatley states she wants to show the colonist that even colored people can believe in God. Wheatley placed ¨Christians¨ and ¨Negroes¨ together so it can be clear to the colonist that no matter what color skin tone you have you have the right to believe in God.
Located on Google Scholars, “The Influence of Malcolm X on Black Militancy” by Frederick D. Harper is an excerpt that explains the viewpoints of blacks during the time of segregation. While reading this article, I learned that Black Islam is a separate religion than Islam. Elijah Muhammad mainly taught black Islam. This all-black religious sect was mainly spoken to black militant leaders (Frederick D. Harper). This excerpt has taught me that during the time of segregation, Black Islam was not really a religion.