According to Matthews (2004), post-development theorists had a different view of development as being obsolete and that it did more harm than good as Piertese (2000) quoted Latouche (1993) as referring to development as westernization. Development has been and still is the Westernisation of the world (Latouche, 1993) – imposing western lifestyles. This Prosser (2010) believes is the hidden agenda of development from the onset. The problem with development is that it is external, based on the model
Development is a normative concept due to which there is a constant tussle in conceptually defining development. There are different models of development parse but it has been increasingly equated to economic development and wrongly paralleled to economic growth. In strictly economic terms, development has conventionally meant a sustained annual increase in GNP (or GDP) at rates that vary from 5 percent to 7 percent or more (Kapila, 2013). Till the 1960’s the term economic development was used as a synonym to economic growth; where the latter meant increase in per capita GNP in real terms (adjusted to inflation). According to the economic historian Kindleberger, “Whereas economic growth merely refers to a rise in output, economic development
However, the question remains that the new mechanism whether they are inclusive and addressing the aspiration of the citizens or they will take guidance from European partners. The sociocultural effects of economic change can perform well if the four major milestones addressed, Education reform, Industrialization, Intra-Africa trade acceleration and tariff harmonization, infrastructure development. Background to Research Problem The portrayal of Africa as the fourth world is a demonstration of the underdevelopment and backwardness that emanated from ravaged by internal conflict and external invasion, which instigated such classification. Though African countries have a different living standard all the way yet they share common denominator tagged in the continent as the pot of poverty, insecurity and diseases. According to S. Amin, Africa in contrast with Asian and Latin American’s counterparts is far behind to access market and living standards.
INTRODUCTION According to John S. Mbiti. “religion has deep root in people lives.” As a result, to make this work in a proper way in the society, men and woman who have religious knowledge have taking up the lead of others in leadership activities and their save as the link between their fellow human beings on the one hand, and God, Spirits and invisible things on the other. These leaders are find in all African societies. Therefore, is assignment will deal with issues of leadership in Africa and will give some suggested solution to the issues. CHALLENGES IN AFRICAN LEADERSHIP The dynamics of African leadership structure requires a general understanding of the concept of leadership.
AFRICAN SOLUTION TO AFRICAN PROBLEMS A FUTILE EFFORT OR A REALITY 1. Introduction The notion of African solution to African problems is a popular saying and at times a cliché mantra among African states that emphasizes on looking inwards within the continent of Africa. This is most of these states hold dearly the principle of non-interference especially when it comes to matters involving the developed countries and the International System. This is so because the developed countries interfere with the domestic issues among African states and influence their decision making whether directly or indirectly. An example of this is the economic embargos and state of emergencies declared to the African states by the developed countries if they (the African states) do not align themselves with the developed counties whether ideological or in terms of policy making.
This disastrous event saw the UN pull out of African issues for almost 25 years (Mays, 2003). Another reason as to why the AU should find solutions for African issues is that the West would only pursue peace operations in Africa when it is in favour of their own interests, a view that goes against a key assumption of liberalism that people consider how their actions affect others and while pursuing their own interest they will consider the best way to make everyone happy (Steans, et al., 2010). An instance of this was when the US and France used their power to keep President Mobutu of Zaire in control even though he was labeled as corrupt, they did this to receive assistance from President Mobutu in the cold war (Mays, 2003). It becomes more and more evident that in order for the African continent to prosper, Africans will have to rely on themselves to solve their problems. If the validity of this statement is still questioned then the case of Rwanda should prove my point.
This chapter attempts to expatiate the theoretical foundations, discourses, and approaches which are used in this study. It begins with the elaboration of discourse in development, its foundations and debates, sustainable development and cultural dimension in development, particularly from the view of Economic Anthropology. Nevertheless, the elaboration extents to the discussion on poverty alleviation in development, including microfinance discourse: its role, glories and critics. Meanwhile, specific attention will be given to the elaboration of development approach which is based on a bottom-up approach where a cultural dimension is inevitable to be included in the development plan and policy. In this context, Indigenous knowledge
By doing so, not only will the foreign exchange increase but also the production will increase along with acquiring a better range of goods and services. Secondly, I think that good governance and leadership is the key to slowly reducing and eventually eradicating the poverty in these countries. The African leaders must ensure to devote a lot of time, money and effort into the agriculture sector. Moreover industries too should be set up to provide jobs and lessen the reliance on European nations for
There are several reasons why poverty would occur which is corruption, and lack of resources in few regions. People see Africa as a corrupted continent where as having enough resources to develop, yet their governments do not use that money in a proper way. The governments uses these money for their own benefits. Trust is important, unfortunately, government’s corruption in Africa would destroy this trust between them and their people ensuring that money is well used. Despite all the resources that they have that makes Africa a rich continent yet Africa is one of the poor countries in the world.
Developmentalist theory is a theory of Economic development which was presented after the WWII with the “Marshallian Plan”. Marshallian plan was reconstructing and creating a strong economic foundation for Western countries of Europe. What is developmentalism? Developmentalitism is an economic theory which states that the best way for third world countries to develop through strong internal market and high imposing tariff on imports. The theory is based on the assumption that not only are there similar stages to development for all countries but also that there is a linear movement from one stage to another that goes from traditional or primitive to modern or industrialized Main Principles of Developmentalism Developmentalism is based on