Overview The Muslim minority living in western Myanmar/Burma 's Rakhine State – almost 800000 people – identify themselves as Rohingya. For decades they have suffered legal and social discrimination. There are long-standing tensions with the Buddhist Rakhine community over land and resources. These conflicts, in term, have subjected the Rohingyas to be denied the right to citizenship and even the right to self identify. The Rohingyas are subject to many restrictions like banned from travelling without authorization and prohibited from working outside their villages, they cannot even get married without permission from the authorities, and severely lack sufficient access to food, medical care and education.
For many years India struggled greatly for their independence. The three major events in the Indian fight against British rule were: the Golden Temple Massacre, the Salt March, and the homespun movement. During the Temple Massacre British and Gurkha troops killed at least 379 unarmed Indians meeting at the Jallianwala Bagh, to discuss nonviolent resistance and protest. However, the British had passed a law that said they were forbidden from encouraging and having meetings about nonviolent protests. The Salt March, which took place in India, was an act of civil disobedience.
Nationally, registered private entrepreneurs reached more than 2 million in 1997 and hired 12 million workers (SSB 1998:49). These “business elites” are understandably weak politically, having no interest, no autonomy, and no class capacity to work for the cause of a democratic state and politics (Pearson 1997). Despite the conflict between Communist ideology and capitalist ownership, Party Secretary General Jiang Zemin announced in his First of July of 2001 speech a call to recruit party members from all social strata including private entrepreneurs. Patronization may quickly change to a model of political incorporation. THE AMBIGUOUS CLASS STATUS OF INTELLECTUALS “Intellectuals”—professionals, cultural elites, and technocrats—have always had an ambiguous class status throughout post-revolution history (Kraus 1981).
Rohingya are often described as "the world's most persecuted minority". They are an ethnic group, majority of whom are Muslim, who have lived for centuries in the majority Buddhist Myanmar Currently, there are about 1.1 million Rohingya who live in the Southeast Asian country. The Rohingya speak Rohingya or Ruaingga, a dialect that is distinct to others spoken in Rakhine State and throughout Myanmar. They are not considered one of the country's official ethnic groups and have been denied citizenship in Myanmar since 1982, which has effectively rendered them stateless. Where are the Rohingya from?
Myanmar, since political isolationism in 1962 and under military rule, this state was closed from outside world. There is not much information acknowledged by international community regarding the situation in Myanmar. There is no clear and obvious information in how Rohingyas becomes object of perpetrator and getting brutal violence from the majorities. For example, in 1991-2, the army has arranged for about 250,000 Rohingya communities to flee to Bangladesh, and they were repatriated without ‘given citizenship’ by the state (Dittmer, 2010). In addition, the data reported by Rianne ten Veen and the Islamic Human Rights Commision said that in 1991, Muslim Rohingya was targeted as object of abuses.
Rohingya are only able to obtain citizenship if they can prove that their ancestors migrated there before 1823. The article Return for Burma's Displaced Rohingya addresses the issue “The 1982 Citizenship Law doesn't recognize the Rohingya as a national ethnic group and denies citizenship to individuals who cannot provide evidence that their ancestors settled in the country before 1823, the year the British began their occupation of Rakhine state, then known as Arakan”(Gregoire 3). Due to the 1982 citizenship law, the vast majority of rohingya are not able to obtain citizenship even if they were born in the country. This causes them to be taken advantage of and to have many of their basic human rights taken away. Muslim militants have risen up and began fighting back due to the mistreatment of the Rohingya.
The Rohingya people are a stateless Indo – Aryan People from Rakhine State Myanmar. Majority of these people are Muslims and some are Hindus. They have been denied citizenship under the 1982 Myanmar Nationality Law which abandoned them from getting any nationality. They are restricted from freedom of movement, education and jobs. The Rohingyas have faced military crackdowns in 1978, 1991–1992, 2012- 2015 and 2061–2017.
Rohingya is an ethnic group and majority of them are Muslims. After 1962 military overthrow in Myanmar, rules and laws have changed drastically where the Rohingya were only given foreign identity cards for each of them instead of national registration cards. This card limits the jobs, educational opportunities and other rights they could pursue and obtain as a citizen. However, things got worse in 1982 when a new citizenship law was passed through the parliament. This time, the Rohingya have been denied citizenship which makes them stateless and unwelcomed to their own country.
Rohingyas are the one of the most minor Muslim group of people of 1.1 million people who lives in the Western part of Myanmar, the country of Buddhism. These people have been living in this country for centuries. However, they were not given the citizenship of the country. Rohingyas were always been neglected by the country but it became serious in the year 2012 after an incidence of a confliction between Muslim militants and Myanmar police. Since then the situation gets worse and worse and it ended up with inhuman acts like killing or Rape Rohingyas brutally till now.
The emergency period (1975-1977) viewed the colonial nature of the Indian legal system. Thousands of innocent people including political opponents were sent to jails and there was complete deprivation of civil and political rights . During the post emergency period, the judges of the Supreme Court openly neglect the impediments of Anglo- Saxon procedure in providing access to justice to the poor . Prior to 1980s only the aggrieved party could knock the doors of justice personally and seek remedy for his injustice. Only the affected parties had the locus standi to file a case and continue the litigation .