(WHO, 2016) In addition, women around the world suffer from violence either from their husbands or from groups in those countries. Women in Asia and Africa are the best example for this phenomenon. Therefore, this study will discuss violence against women including causes of violence against women, effects of violence against women, examples of countries where women suffer from violence and ways to overcome and avoid violence against women and ways to treat this problem. The paper will also discuss what people think about violence against women and whether if it is existed. In fact, many people think that violence against women is existed due to many factors.
It includes not only sexual assault and rape, but also harassment, such as forcing a partner to have sex with other people, pursuing sexual activity when the victim is not fully conscious or is afraid to say no, hurting partner physically during sex and coercing partner to have sex without protection / sabotaging birth control. (Waithayawongkorn et al., 2009) The effects of domestic violence against womenby intimate partners are the both of physically and emotionally from multiple traumas. These traumas can have various effects on the mind, body and spirit. It is natural to experience these, and acknowledging the effects can be an important first step in embarking on a process towards restoration and healing. Living with domestic violence can cause physical and emotional harm to women.
Gender based violence is predominantly a male-patterned violence: a prevalent violence committed most often but not always by men and it is often motivated by aggression, revenge, competition, and entitlement. Gender based violence also includes sexual and other violence against women, partners and children. The Centre for Rights Education and Awareness, (2006) viewed Gender Violence as the physical sexual and psychological violation against both men and women, which occurs within the family and the community and is condoned by the government. From the female perspective it can also be defined as violence against women based on women’s lesser status in the society. This includes any act or threat by men or male dominated institutions that is intended to cause physical, sexual or psychological harm to a woman or a girl because of their gender.
Many women experience multiple episodes of violence that may start in the prenatal period and continue through childhood to adulthood and old age. The lifecycle approach to ‘gender-based violence helps one understand the cumulative impact of violence experienced by women and girls, especially in terms of its physical and mental health consequences. Gender violence is also the most powerful predictor of rape, sexual assault, psychological abuse and relationship violence. These crimes are predominantly against women and perpetrated by men. Gender violence highlights a male-patterned violence: a prevalent violence committed most often but not always by men, often motivated by aggression, revenge, competition, and entitlement, and includes sexual and other violence against women, girls and children.
Why are rape myths so harmful? Myths lead people to blame women. We think that she was ‘asking to be raped’. Instead of holding the rapist responsible for the rape, we blame the victim. In court, defence lawyers can also use myths to attempt to undermine the testimony of the survivor.
This study seeks to understand international law and domestic violence with focus on the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Domestic violence is very prevalent in Afghanistan with majority of targets being women and children. However the main focus in this research would be the women. Domestic Violence against women can be called domestic abuse, spousal abuse, battering and family violence, furthermore it is a serious concern because not only is it a violent act committed against women, it also violates their human rights. Tjaden & Thoennes (2000) defined domestic violence as rape, assault and stalking perpetuated by current and former dates, spouses and cohabiting partners. The Office of Violence against Women (2007) defines domestic violence as a pattern of abusive behavior in any relationship that is used by one partner to gain or maintain power and control over another intimate partner.
Emancipation does not decrease but increases violence against women, because men react with violence to challenges of their authority by female claims for autonomy. Violence against women is institutionalized through family structures, social and economic arrangements and traditions so that in many cases not even women see violence against women as wrong which in term leads to impunity. A widespread form of violence against women is domestic violence: Social, cultural and economic power differences, as well as differences in physical strength, put women at risk. Historically, religion and juridical systems contributed to domestic violence: For centuries, Catholic scholars demanded female subordination and provided theological legitimization for male violence and domination while laws throughout Europe approved of domestic violence against women. While women are more frequently victims of severe physical violence, men get victimized in romantic relationships, too.
Domestic Violence is one of the commonest forms of gender-based violence. Many women have been battered, abused, raped, butchered, and killed by the men they chose to love or care about. Sadly, for many years, such violence was treated as a private matter but by the introductions of a series of international instruments, such actions have now been established as a criminal offense and states have been given the responsibility of taking positive initiatives to address the problem. When it comes to global issues, the United Nations and International laws, the responsibility of implementation fall on the States and hence a breach of due diligence in protecting and promoting human rights makes a State accountable for the violations in its jurisdiction.
But after Mariam had a miscarriage everything changed. Rasheed became more sensitive and he seems to have a problem with his temper. The spousal abuse started with verbal taunting such as Rasheed mocking Mariam for not knowing simpal things such as knowing meaning of words. Khaled Hosseini uses the theme of domestic abuse to highlight the issue of social justice among women in Afghanistan. The protagonists in the novel are constantly being abused physically and mentally by their cynical husband.
> Domestic violence: The most prevalent form of violence is domestic violence. This form often goes far beyond a psychological torture and results in forced marriages, amputation, denial of food, physical torture, rape and shaving of eyebrows and hair. The perpetrators, according to the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan, are identified as either being the victims husband, the in-laws or her father or brother. For the worse, about 70 to 90% (maybe more) suffer domestic violence within Pakistan. That 's a horrible scenario to take into account.