In addition, the influence of activating or inhibiting chemical can be assessed. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA or band shift) Gel electrophoresis under native, nondenaturing conditions of the protein–DNA complex. Pure DNA serves as the standard. If the protein is bound the complex will travel at lower velocity and hence the band will appear shifted compared to the DNA alone. Using different DNA oligonucleotides enables the determination of target sequences.
Such representation is called a DNA Profile and is stored in an electronic DNA Database. Collection of DNA samples includes a mouth swab to scrape cells from inside the individual's cheek, hair pulled out from the head, blood stains off a crime scene etc. These
In order to utilize casein, bacteria cells secrete proteolytic exoenzymes (amylases, proteases, pectinases, lipases, xylanases and cellulases) outside of the cell that hydrolyze the protein to amino acids. The amino acids can then be used by cells after crossing the cell membrane via transport proteins . Starch hydrolysis test is used to differentiate bacteria based on their ability to hydrolyze starch with the enzyme α-amylase or oligo-l, 6-glucosidase. These enzymes hydrolyze starch by breaking the glycosidic linkages between the sugar subunits. It aids in the differentiation of species from the genera Corynebacterium, Clostridium, Bacillus, Bacteroides, Fusobacterium and members of Enterococcus .
DNA Profiling DNA profiling (also called DNA fingerprinting, DNA testing, or DNA typing) is a forensic technique used to identify individuals by characteristics of their DNA. A DNA profile is a small set of DNA variations that is very likely to be different in all unrelated individuals, thereby being as unique to individuals as are fingerprints (hence the alternate name for the technique). It was first developed and used in 1985, DNA profiling is used in, for example, parentage testing and criminal investigation, to identify a person or to place a person at a crime scene, techniques which are now employed globally in forensic science to facilitate police detective work and help clarify paternity and immigration disputes. Although 99.9% of human
Firstly, to sequence a gigantic DNA of a human genome, the DNA should be cut into smaller fragments which can be sequenced individually and the fragments of the DNA are aligned in order and they are cut based on overlaps and this will produce the complete sequence. Cutting the DNA can be done using constraint enzymes and chemically by clipping. The organization of sequences of overlapping pieces is done by a computer The shotgun part originates from the way the clone is set up for sequencing: it is arbitrarily sheared into little pieces and sub cloned into an "all inclusive" cloning vector. The library of subfragments is inspected indiscriminately, and various succession peruses produced (utilizing a widespread groundwork coordinating sequencing from inside the cloning vector). These grouping peruses are then gathered into coting and the entire succession of the clone produced.
Second, was ascertained the contribution of solute concentration in osmotic flow and the last experiment evidenced that the lesser the molecular weight higher the diffusion. Thus, passive transport is influenced by the size of the molecules, solute concentration
Particles move faster when the temperature in which they are surrounded by is increased. This explains why increasing the temperature of the catalase reaction would increase the rate of reaction. Another requirement for successful collision other than overcoming the activation energy barrier is having the correct geometrical orientation. My prediction can also be supported by the fact that faster movements of hydrogen peroxide molecules and catalase molecules will increase collision frequency, which will ultimately increase the number of successful collisions. As a final result, more reaction will be catalyzed and more oxygen gas will be produced; therefore, enzyme activity and reaction rate will increase.
The collision theory states that if a system has more collisions, there will be a greater number of molecules bouncing into each other. What this means in relation to the lab i conducted, is that if there are more molecules in the HCL then there is higher chance the molecules will collide with the CaCO3 chips, and this why the HCL with the lowest concentration produced the least amount of CO2 (the HCL was diluted, which means that it had a lower molar concentration, which means that there were less acid molecules, which means that the molecules had a lower chance of colliding with the
Diffusion describes the tendency of molecules to move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. This is also known as moving down their concentration gradient. The particles in a solution are constantly in motion as a result of their kinetic energy. This causes collisions, which in turn causes the particles to ricochet off of one another and switch direction. Since the particles are in an area of high concentration, there is a greater likelihood of more collisions occurring, resulting in the particles being propelled in the opposite direction, or towards the area of low concentration, eventually leading to a sense of equilibrium of the particles on each side of the gradient.
Purification of GFP from E.coli via Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography Priscilla Mariel M. Cadiz Biology Department, De La Salle University, 2401 Taft Ave, Manila, Philippines *Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Protein purification is an important techniquie in order to study the function and structure of proteins. Protein purification involves the process of removing contaminants and isolating desired proteins. Chromatography is one of the methods used for purifying and isolating proteins. Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) is the desired protein to be isolated from the bacteria Escherichia coli which allows the bacteria to fluoresce. GFP contains abundant hydrophobic sites and because of this, Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography