First language acquisition consist of children learning how to properly develop their oral skills to communicate in their native language. From birth, the child begins to acquire language by hearing adults speaking, although the child cannot fully understand the language, subconsciously the child is acquiring the language. As a child gets older they began to become knowledgeable of the grammatical rules in writing and begin to expand their vocabulary. Second language acquisition consist of child learning another language beside their native language. In some occasions a child is exposed to two languages simultaneously, causing the child to combine some aspects of the language.
However, there is no consensus over what this role is. It is commonly believed that as individuals grow older, their ability to acquire a new language systematically and gradually declines. This idea is made clear by the Critical Period Hypothesis (CPH) that is much debated by the linguistics and cognitive science communities. This hypothesis proposes that the degree to which individuals can acquire a new language is linked biologically with age. Penfield & Robert’s (1959) hypothesis attempted to demonstrate that there is "a biologically determined period of life when language can be acquired more easily and beyond which time language is increasingly difficult to acquire."
Parents help the children develop their first language. In addition, Krashen (1982:10) explains about language acquisition: “The first way language acquisition, a process similar, if not identical, to the way children develop ability in their first language. Language acquisition is a subconscious process; language acquirers are not usually aware of the fact that they are acquiring language, but are only aware of the fact that they are using the language for communication. The result of language acquisition, acquired competence, is also subconscious. We are generally not consciously aware of the rules of the languages we have acquired.
Compare to the time it takes in adults’ language learning, it is widely believed that children acquire their first language at a much higher speed. There have been a lot of researches concerning this topic. For example, White (2003) discussed about the theoretical problem of first language acquisition from the perspective of universal grammar; Krashen (1982) has proposed five hypothesis concerning principles and practices on the topic of second language acquisition. In order to analyze this topic, it is appropriate to start with children’s first language acquisition. By the comparison and analysis first language acquisition process, we may discover the features of language acquisition as well as the factors that affect the process.
Lenneberg (1967) proposed that there is a sensitive or critical period for acquisition of a first language. The Critical Period Hypothesis holds that there is “a biologically period of life when language can be acquired more easily and beyond which time language is increasing difficult to acquire” (Brown 1994, p.52). All children acquire the first language if stimuli is provided. But if the input of language does not occur before a particular period, ones will never achieve full command of that language. For first language, the critical, biologically determined period is believed to be first five years of
This process has been the subject of study of linguists, philosophers and psychologists throughout the history trying to understand and explain how a child makes the use of a language so spontaneously and how they learn it so accurately without any overt instruction. The question is how can children acquire a language and be able to use it in a so astonishing way? For the purposes of this essay I will focus on the process of language acquisition and the importance and influence of the environment as well as how Nature and nurture interact to support its complexity and elaboration throughout a human’s life. Language acquisition starts at birth. The child is exposed to a spoken language and the Phonological system starts working.
Despite the fact that the child is still acquiring aspects of his or her native language through the later years of childhood, it is normally assumed that, by the age of five, the child has completed the greater part of the basic language acquisition process. According to some, the child is then in a good position to start learning a second ( or foreign) language. In this chapter, I am really interest about the child's language acquisition from the first months of life until growing up. The child's language acquisition is clearly broken down by grade level also same by age. And I also understand that the deaf children are due to the inaudible can not hear the sound around.
Introduction In our current world, acquiring and learning languages is very crucial part of our life as it is the process that enables us to communicate with each other. First language is acquired naturally but it is not sufficient in our progressive world where science and technology depend on foreign languages. Therefore, acquiring a second language is demanded to fulfill our needs. Language acquisition is the process or the ability that enables children to acquire their languages (Saville-Troike, 2005). First language acquisition does not necessarily be one language, it can be two or more languages as well.
That is because both first and second languages are acquired in a similar way. Differently to language learning which cannot be considered acquisition since it is based on a formal reading-writing process where learners study grammar rules
Stages of Second Language Acquisition Shipley, E., Smith, C., & Gleitman, L. (1969) explores that child is more competent with language than adults, however nobody who expects the child to be born speaking in English or Turkish or all it without a good deal with exposure to the practice to speech of each other. According to Shipley, E., Smith, C ( 1969 ) there are five stages in the second language acquisition, which are : - Pre- Production Pre – Production stage is also called as “silent period”. In this stage, learners may have up to 500 words. - Early Production This stage last up to 6 months and learners have up to 1000 words. - Speech