In the later, he weakens the importance of reason in Platonism, however, he is able to rectify a seemingly antagonistic relationship between faith and reason. Augustine successfully brought Platonism into Christianity; he reconciled issues such as the existence of a spiritual world and the problem of accounting for evil. Platonism’s ontology allowed Augustine to conceptualize the existence of a spiritual world and claim God, like the forms, is the ultimate source for the existence of all things and ideas within the physical world. Augustine’s application of Platonist doctrines not only helps explain and rationalize Christian faith, it also resolves issues within Christianity, such as, God’s omnipotence and omni-benevolence, and the problem of
The Enlightenment or also known as the Age of Reason was from the mid 1680’s up until the early 19th century. The Age of reason took place all of the world anywhere from Switzerland, to Scotland, to Germany, to America, and so forth. The Enlightenment was mainly about using reason to understand and believe things. It began to push individuals to stop just believing what the Christian and Catholic churches had to say about things and begin to question them them and want factual information to prove them. The Enlightenment can be broken down into three main parts which are the ‘Early Enlightenment’ which took place from 1685 throughout 1730, the ‘High Enlightenment’ which took place from 1730 throughout 1780, and finally the ‘Late Enlightenment’ which took place from 1730 up until 1815 where it later ended.
The superego, or the conscience as we call it, is where the battle is fought between our old carnal nature and our new godly nature. Freud thought the superego was created specifically by social influence. Christians, however, believe that our morality comes from God more than social influences. The psychoanalyst’s goal is to bring the unconscious to the conscious which sounds like revealing the “thoughts and attitudes of the heart” we read about in Scripture (Hebrews 4:12). Though Freud claimed that self-awareness and ego strength are enough to make us healthy individuals, we know that true holistic health only comes through God and His
The second is to study religion and religious experiences from more subjective point of view. An historical survey would witness to both of these approaches. Alston attempts the possibility of a rational and objective justification of religious beliefs against the background of growing trends of materialism and superiority of scientific methodology. The central thesis of the book Perceiving God is expressed in the introduction where he writes, The central thesis of this book is that experiential awareness of God, or as I shall be saying, the perception of God, makes an important contribution to the grounds of religious belief. More specifically, a person can become justified in holding certain kinds of beliefs about God by virtue of perceiving God as being or doing so-and-so.
According to Emmanuel Kant, enlightenment refers to being free to use an individual’s intelligence (Kristic, 312). The Enlightenment broke through an existing sacred circle that had influenced the thinking of people. The sacred circle, in this case, refers to the existing independent relationship between church leaders and texts found in the Bible. The enlightenment is also a source of important ideas like the centrality of freedom, reasons for main values of the society and democracy as opposed to the rights held by traditions and kings as the authority that rules. According to these views, establishing the contractual basis of rights would result in capitalism and market mechanism, religious tolerance, scientific methods and the organization of different states into their self-governing republics by democratic means.
Moreover, they argue that sanctification changes people’s nature, and it changes the direction to live for God. The reformed theologians suggest three ways of sanctification: through the union with Christ, by means of the truth, and by faith. The reformed perspective on the pattern of sanctification is likeness to God (Christ-likeness), because people once had the image of God, before the Fall. The word “renewing” is important for reformed theologians, because their perspective on sanctification is to be renewed. Reformed theologians learned, from Romans 8:29, that Christ-likeness is the purpose of choosing people; and it is not merely one of the suggestions to be Christ likeness people, but it is command to become like one.
This is a consequence of the new Christian philosophy that love transcends the material value of the person and instead treasures their inherent worth. At this point, Scheler concludes that he has found the reason Nietzsche confuses Christian love with altruism. The function of Christian love is to help other people in need, while altruism negates the value of the other person. While the main function of altruism is to fix the needs of the person in a lower position than that of the helper, Scheler says that Christian love does not consist in merely meeting the needs of the person but is directed at the person themselves. The philosophy of Christian love that Scheler constructs is that this love is a striving from the lower to the higher.
The Pride and Prejudice was written before two hundred years ago and as we know that the writer writes about that by what he is affected or influenced. In a sense the writer presents the essence of his age and era through his piece of writing. But we feel that, with the passage of time evolution occurs, which is followed by advancement in technology, which in turn led to advancement of the world & people. Therefore what was applicable yesterday may not be applicable in present or what was truth yesterday may not be true in present,because each age andits constituents are different from one another. But all this is exception to Jane Austin’s novel i.e.
In this essay, I will discuss the usage of Christian elements of The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, ballad written by Samuel Taylor Coleridge, and how they come together to make the moral. For this to be possible, it is important to note author's own religious beliefs in order to understand how he incorporated these elements into the text. Coleridge was a devout Unitarian Christian, though he continually struggled to accept some Christian ideas. Both his beliefs and doubts transferred to his poems, „In any case, Coleridge would certainly not have been the ﬁrst Christian poet to question, through the medium of verse, the morally disturbing implications of a divine Father who offers up His only Son (…)“ (Hillier 10) hence, the same should apply to The Rime. William Empson makes a point of arguing that Coleridge's subsequent addition of Gloss to the ballad influenced readers to understand the poem as a heavily Christian based one.
Any comprehensive reading of The Pilgrim 's Progress requires an extensive understanding of the religious framework within which John Bunyan was writing. Generally speaking, Bunyan fits into the group of people that are now commonly referred to as Puritans. In Bunyan 's time, however, 'Puritan ' was a somewhat ambiguous term that incorporated Baptists and Quakers, Ranters and other dissenters. While they shared a common goal of "purifying" the Church of what they saw as excess and materialism, there are many subtle differences between these religions ' theologies, methods, and relations to authority. Bunyan did not necessarily chose to label himself, but Greaves observes that he likely could have been described as an open-membership, open-communion Baptist.