The questions asked about the media within the media effects tradition reflect the various key aspects in the BFI Framework to a great extent. While, the media effects tradition focuses primarily and substantially on the effects of the media on audience beliefs, attitudes and behavior and how such effects were differentially distributed according to the social positioning of audience members. This specifically refers to their social class, education and occupation. In so doing, it asks and answers the questions put forward by the BFI key aspects framework. Such as: ‘Who is communicating and why?, What type of text is it?, How has it been produced, How do we know what it means, Who receives it, and what sense do they make of it (Media Audiences), and How does it present its subject to
Introduction. This essay will examine the extent to which mass media plays an integral role in a nations public- information system. It will further determine the major sources of content for Mass media. The essay will also look at the relationship that exists between the mass media and public relations practitioners in relation to content acquisition. The essay will also look at various theories advanced on the use and influence of the media.
In addition this excerpt highlighted that the influence of the media depends on the way in which the event is covered, the author explains that a situation or crisis can be blown out of proportion depending on how it is captioned and captured. By highlighting the role and the impact of the media (CNN effect), the author gave the researcher adequate information to answer the final secondary question on the
This prompts the advancement of generalizations, which serve to characterize the personality of one's general public rather than another's, in other words, us vs. them, or to have the capacity to characterize one's individual place in the public eye and consequently to separate oneself from "the others". Luhmann reinforces this idea, by pointing out that generalizations perpetuate the picture of "us vs. the others," generalizations that are additionally created and shaped through the mass media. For Huntington, the separation of "intracivilizational us and extracivilizational them" is an important factor, as the development of an identity gives the community a sense of belonging a place, which recognizes the ‘us’ from the ‘them’ – one unable to exist without the other. Generalizations are additionally authored through the ethnocentric perspectives of social orders and are thusly taxanomized culturally. In such a case, whenever there is a scenario that challenges existing stereotypes, the premise of ‘our’ universe is shaken, to the point that societies must admit it is not the universe as
According to Baran (2012) mass communication can be defined as “the process of creating shared meaning between the mass media and their audiences.” This essay aims to discuss the degree to which we are shaped by our interaction with the media. In order to achieve the aforementioned aim of this essay I will focus on the following: limited-effects theory, two-step flow theory, attitude change theory and agenda setting. The limited effects theory sets out that media influence is based on individual and social characteristics. An example of this is Lazarfelds two-step flow theory. Baran (2012) states that “behaviour was limited by opinion leaders – people who initially consumed media content on topics of particular interest to them, interpreted it in light of their own values and beliefs, and then passed it on to opinion followed, people like them who had less frequent contact with media.” This theory can only go so far as in this day in age there are so many different mediums used to convey media information.
Agenda Setting: This was propounded by McCombs and Donald Shaw in 1972. Here the mass media by paying attention to certain news items and relegating some others to the background ,sets public opinion and directs the mind of the people on what to think about Ralph, E Hanson states that ‘the theory holds that issues that are portrayed as important in the news media become important to the public-that is the media sets the agenda for public debate. If the media are not able to tell them what to think…perhaps they can tell them what to think about’ (p.59) Agenda setting wants to know if what interests the media also interests the public. For an example, the raid of corrupt judges by Directorate of Security Services (DSS) received much discussion and attention in Nigeria following the wide coverage by the media. The media have been able to direct a discussion in that area against other matters of national interest.
One way that the media can shape who we are is by influencing our perception of social reality. Social reality is a reality created through social experience, influence and social interaction, making it distinct from biological reality or individual cognitive reality, which is the result of personal thoughts and experiences. The media is able to shape our concept of social reality because it provides us with most of our understanding of what is happening around us in our social environment. The media, especially news media that make use of newspapers, television or the Internet, tends to present issues or news in simplified versions for the viewers, even if the actual issue
It does more than report information and entertainment as it also presents us with views of human beings, events, issues, and cultural life. Therefore, most of the national media are trying to emphasized people by using an attractive advertisement. This is the reason that people are conducted by the mass media for modern culture. People tend to believe in media which lead to culture change. On the other hand, culture can be defined as the beliefs or values by making sense of our experiences, also concerns how we communicate these values and ideas through mass media.
Some people may take in the data, yet they may settle on no choices or make no move. Conflict theory refers to the media reflect and worsen a heavy portion of the divisions of our general public and world, including those focused around sexual orientation, race, ethnicity, and social class. The media has the ability to decide what needs to be shown through gatekeeping. Gatekeeping is how the information is filtered through checkpoints before it reaches the audience. Conflict theorists contend that the broad communications serve to keep up the benefits of specific groups.
Key words: frames, opinion, positive framing, negative framing, dual framing, deliberation THEORETICAL BACKGROUND As framing of issues is a central thing, a definition is called for. Lilleker (2006, p. 82) describes framing as “the practice of thinking about news items and story content within familiar contexts.“ It is a way of introducing and referring to issues with a preset and much narrowed down contextualization. Frames can therefore work as cognitive shortcuts, or to enable greater