This assignment will focus on Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) as an intervention that aims to reduce the challenges experienced by some people with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Tony Attwood, clinical psychologist states that whilst an individual with Autism can have ‘considerable intellectual ability, ‘there is invariably confusion and immaturity with regard to feelings.’ (Attwood, 2015). CBT focuses on the individual’s development and recognition of emotions and feelings, both their psychological and physiological manifestations, aiming to teach individuals how to recognise and identify dysfunctional or negative thought patterns. ‘It is a psychotherapeutic intervention aimed at enabling an individual to understand the thoughts and feelings
The monograph included his concept of negative cognitive views about self, beliefs, world, and future. According to Beck, those three components interact and can interfere with normal cognitive processing which leads to impairments of perception, memory, and problem solving (McLeod, 2008). Moreover, Beck believed that a negative self-schema may be acquired in childhood as a result of a traumatic event such as the death of a parent or sibling, parental rejection, overprotection, abuse, criticism, exclusion from certain social groups or bullying at school (McLeod, 2008). Additionally, he introduced in his monograph on depression basic strategies to help patients explore their beliefs and how to protect themselves from the “biasing effects of schema-driven processing” (Hollon,
Introduction There have been a variety of studies, which have established how disruptions to attachment and bonding can negatively effect on emotional and psychological development. Family separation and loss experiences have been clearly identified as a risk factor for mental health problems in childhood and adulthood. Way of thinking, temperament and experiences all things play important roles, children who have had broken up relationships with primary caregivers are more likely to have compromised mental health. Separation and loss can be traumatic and its impact depends on the situation of the separation or loss. The work of Van der Kolk (1996) and others (Glaser, 1998) also work on the effect of attachment on mental health ,time addition ,situation ,or conflict between child r care giver, sometimes effect psychological and biologically.
As the child matures into an adult, these dysfunctional tendencies will often lead to law breaking and substance abuse (Mayo Clinic, 2013). It is not known what causes antisocial personality disorder but there are a number of theories that attempt to explain the origins of this disorder (Medline Plus Medical Encyclopedia, 2012). Pathophysiology There are three main theories that attempt to explain where and why this disorder occurs—the psychodynamic, behavioral, and biological models. Psychodynamic theorists propose that this disorders origin begin in infancy. Infants have the need to build trust with their parents or guardians.
Child abuse is, thus, the outcome of having cultured or experienced dysfunctional childcare practices, or not having learned these practices. For instance, someone may have violent behavior because he or she has learned it from other aggressive role models, thus they will rely on such ways to discipline their own children as punishment. Though this is theory takes into accounts the importance of the development of an adult, it could not explain why although boys and girls are likely to be abused, still men are mostly represented among the offenders. It could not suffer any abuse become abuser (CORBY, 1993; 2000; BROUGHAM, 1997; BROWNE, 1995; DEACON AND GOCKE,
Studies focusing on self-compassion and child maltreatment, are hardly generalizable to the entire child maltreatment population. The studies by respectively focused on teens seeking for treatment for substance use and on adolescents in Child Protective Service who were in either foster care, grouped care, independent living, or living with family-of-origin and who did not show severe psychopathology. In order to generalize the results to the broad population, a more varied sample including resilient individuals who suffered from child maltreatment should be used. Another reason why the current research is not generalizable to the broad population is that neither studies controlled for sub-variables of child maltreatment chronicity, type of maltreatment, age of first maltreatment event etc.. Furthermore, new research should focus on self-compassion in resilient individuals who experienced child maltreatment in order to establish if the relationship between self-compassion and mental health is also present in this sample.
This essay will now look more specifically at the findings that have emerged which both support and challenge the relevance of Bowlby’s theory. To understand the behaviour of children and adolescence it is crucial to look at Mary Ainsworth’s findings; she showed that Bowlby’s concepts could be empirically tested. Ainsworth provided a stimulus for the immense amount of research that is continuing to develop the theory. Ainsworth’s Strange Situation studies (1970’s), where babies were separated from their mothers and styles of attachment were categorised based on the babies reactions to separation, were central in developing Bowlby’s attachment theory. Depending on the style of attachment, behaviour would be understood and even predicted.
Because the development of delinquency in youth is influenced by numerous factors, prevention efforts need to be comprehensive in scope. Prevention services may include activities such as substance abuse education and treatment, family counseling, youth mentoring, parenting education, educational support, and youth sheltering. Increasing availability and use of family planning services, including education and contraceptives helps to reduce unintended pregnancy and unwanted births, which are risk factors for delinquency . It has been noted that often interventions may leave at-risk children worse off then if there had never been an intervention. This is due primarily to the fact that placing large groups of at risk children together only propagates delinquent or violent behavior.
“Complex trauma (i.e., exposure to chronic, interpersonal trauma in childhood) has been associated with structural and functional alterations in brain development, which in turn can result in cognitive and neuropsychological deficits” (Gabowitz, Zucker & Cook, 2008, p. 163). Typically, complex traumatic experiences begin in childhood and refer not only to the child’s exposure to the event but also the impact of these exposures on development (Gabowitz et al., 2008; Lawson, Davis & Brandon, 2013). Such exposures include repeated incidence of abuse (sexual, emotional and physical); neglect; loss; and witnessing domestic violence over an extended period of time (Gabowitz et al., 2008; Lawson et al., 2013). Ongoing childhood trauma has adverse
Aggression is something psychologists find hard to define because what one person may say is aggressive behaviour another person may think differently. Aggression has been described as “behaviour that results in injury or destruction of property” (Bandura) and Berkowitz defined it as “Behaviour that is intended to injure some-one physically or psychologically.” Both these definitions have a common ground; the “intention to harm.”(Bushman,2002) Social psychologists argue that aggressive behaviour arises out of our interactions with others in our social world. The Social Learning Theory (SLT) suggests that a child learns aggressive behaviour by observing others acting aggressively. They can also learn aggressive behaviour through situations