Abstract Aging is a risk factor for impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes. Of the reported 25.8 million Americans estimated to have diabetes, 26.9% are over the age of 65. In certain ethnic groups, the proportion is even higher; almost 1 in 3 older Hispanics and African Americans and 3 out of 4 Pima Indian elders have diabetes. As per the NHANES III (Third National Health and Nutrition Examination) survey, the percentage of physician-diagnosed diabetes increased from 3.9% in middle-aged adults (40–49 years) to 13.2% in elderly adults (≥75 years). The higher incidence of diabetes is especially alarming considering that diabetes in itself increases the risk for multiple other age-related diseases such as cancer, stroke, cardiovascular diseases, …show more content…
Diabetes and its complications remain major causes of morbidity and mortality in the USA . It has been reported that the prevalence of T2D increases with age and peaks at 60–74 [2–4]. Almost one third of the elderly have diabetes and three quarters have diabetes or prediabetes . The higher incidence of diabetes is especially alarming considering that diabetes in itself increases the risk for multiple other age-related diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), atherosclerosis, stroke, Alzheimer disease (AD), Parkinson's disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and cancer . The pathogenesis of T2D in aging is characterized by two major features: peripheral insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion from β cells . Here, we review how aging predisposes to diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance through effects on insulin secretion and insulin …show more content…
Glucose and amino acid are major stimuli for insulin release from the pancreatic β cell. With aging, there is a decrease in insulin secretion following stimulation with glucose as well as amino acid arginine . Decrease in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in vivo has been shown in rodents using the state-of-the-art hyperglycemic clamps . In humans, disorderly insulin release, a decrease in insulin pulse amplitudes, and decreased response to glucose oscillations as well as alterations in insulin clearance have all been demonstrated . When the insulin secretory defects are superimposed over an increased need for insulin as in old age, impaired glucose homeostasis, glucose intolerance, and diabetes can result. We have demonstrated in rodent models that older rodents are unable to increase insulin secretion in proportion to the increased demands imposed by insulin resistance , thus contributing to impaired glucose tolerance. Similarly, studies in humans have demonstrated a secretory defect that is consistently observed even after controlling for insulin action. Many factors contribute to the decrease in insulin secretion in aging, including the age-associated loss of Sirt1-mediated GSIS , decreased β-cell sensitivity to circulating incretins , age-associated decrease in mitochondrial function, as well as increased oxidative stress . In this section of
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It does not matter the age of the person, obesity can put anyone at risk of much more deathly diseases. The population of people having type 2 diabetes has doubled between 1996 and 2007. About twenty years ago, it was said that only people under the age of 40 could only get this disease, but in the past 10 years it has increased tremendously in adolescents. While the frequency of type 2 diabetes has increased, it has also escalated very largely for many people of color. About 13.2% of African Americans, 15.9% of Native Americans and 12.8% of Hispanics have type 2 diabetes.
Introduction In 2010, 25.8 million Americans were diagnosed with diabetes. Two years later in 2012, the number of diabetic patients went form 25.8 million American to 29.1 million American diagnosed with diabetes (Overall Numbers, Diabetes and Prediabetes, 2014). The vast increase in diabetic cases in America is justifies a need for more educators to stir patients with the proper direction of managing this disease. In this information age, where the internet is our first option, computers and internet is our go to resource.
In the event that the blood glucose stays high, then the rise in insulin emission is managed. This managed increment is because of the releasing of both stored insulin and recently integrated insulin. Moreover, this insulin is secreted by pancreas, which is a glandular organ in our digestive system. However, diabetic people have problems in their pancreas so their pancreas secretes a little amount of insulin and sometimes does not secrete insulin. Therefore, Insulin injection is another source of insulin.
The theory I choose that has application to my health promotion concept is the life course theory. The alternative approach to life course theory is a model that hypothesizes that adult chronic disease reflects the cumulative lifetime exposure to damaging physical and social environments (Nickitas, Middaugh, & Aries, 2010, p. 28). It was mentioned that factors like one’s socioeconomic status, like being born into poverty, could lead to poor education and limited access to health care services. This theory has a significant correlation and application to the health promotion concept I have chosen – the prevention, treatment, and care of diabetes. Diabetes is the 7th leading underlying cause of death in 2011("Healthy People 2020," 2014).
Literature Review INTRODUCTION Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a popular pregnancy complication which affects 15% of pregnant women worldwide (1). GDM normally associates with both long term and short term morbidity in both mother and child. For example, the mother will deliver baby at high birth weight (macrosomia) which results in the baby being at risk for hypoglycemia, jaundice and birth trauma (2). In longer term, this child is more prone to have abnormal glucose tolerance and develop into diabetes during adolescence (3).
Consequently, blood glucose levels are raised as there is no more energy in the cells. The tiny blood vessels in the eyes, heart, kidneys and nervous system are damaged as a result of very high blood glucose levels. This is the reason why the risk of cardiovascular disease, loss of vision, kidney disorders and neurological conditions is increased. If blood glucose remains high, diabetes or pre-diabetes is diagnosed. Pre-diabetes is described as a condition where blood glucose levels are higher than average but they are not too high to be diagnosed of diabetes.
Insulin resistance is not considered disease as such, but a state or condition in which a bodies tissues have a lowered level of response to insulin. As a result, the body produces larger quantities of insulin to maintain normal levels of glucose in the blood.(22) Now insulin resistance is thought to play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of both simple fatty liver and NASH. The understanding of the intracellular mechanisms associated with insulin resistance is being unravelled and there are several reviews written on this subject. (45)
The aging population is increasing rapidly in the world. During the period between 2015 and 2050, the percentage of people above 60 years of age will double (World Health Organization, 2015). The main health challenges faced by our aging population include chronic conditions, sensory and cognitive impairment. The examples of chronic conditions the aged people face comprise diabetes mellitus, arthritis, dementia etc. The treatment of these conditions may require daily medications and specialized care (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2015).
The circulatory system is affected because if the levels of glucose exceed normal amount, the blood vessels could be damaged. If the damage done to the blood vessels goes untreated, several blood vessels can explode which would have negative effects on the body because blood isn’t being properly or efficiently transported throughout the body. The endocrine system is highly affected by diabetes because it is in this system that the pancreas is meant to regulate glucose levels. Because the level of glucose is too high without insulin being produced in the body to counteract the levels, the natural bodily processes are interrupted causing the affected individual to be aware of their glucose levels themselves with at-home tests. (Daneman, 2006).
Radiographs are commonly used for classifying OA. Kellgren and Lawrence in 1957 developed classification for OA based on radiographic findings. They graded OA by comparing the index radiograph with a reproduction in a radiographic atlas. The criteria for grading OA are related to the sequential presence of osteophytes, narrowing of the joint space and subchondral sclerosis. The criteria are based on the presence of radiological features such as, “a) the formation of osteophytes on the joint margins or, in the case of the knee joint on the tibial spine, b) a presence of periarticular ossicles, c) narrowing of the joint cartilage associated with sclerosis of the subchondral bone, d) small pseudocystic areas with sclerotic walls situated usually
Upon its discovery, HbA1c was proposed as a useful biomarker for diabetes monitoring (Koenig et al., 1976a, Koenig et al., 1976b), and endogenously produced AGEs attracted further scientific attention, beyond food chemistry, from fields including medical biochemistry and pathology. At this point it is important to highlight that there are two sources of AGEs: the endogenously produced AGEs, a product of the reaction between proteins and sugars in the circulation, and exogenous AGEs, produced during cooking and absorbed in the small intestine (~10%
Normal body physiology plays a key role in maintain a balance between production of ROS and body’s antioxidant defense system and any sort of imbalance altering this dynamic system leads to onset of metabolic disorder with cognitive dysfunction (Smith et al., 2009). Hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, superoxide ion and singlet oxygen are such reactive species which are abundantly produced in cellular respiration cycles and have very short half-life (Li et al., 2013) The coexistence of obesity significantly contributes to the production of excess free radicals and ROS involved in diabetes and diabetic complications (Amin et al., 2011). Diabetic patients have more oxidative cellular environment as compared to healthy ones (Moreira et al., 2007; Fu et al., 2009).
Investigation of Nature of Aphasia in Stroke Associated with Metabolic Syndrome Bincy Babu, Shamili Asokan, Daly Sebastian, Reeta Philip ABSTRACT Introduction: Stroke is one of the largest causes of death and disability in adults, affecting a large number of people all over the world. Two of the leading risk factors that lead to stroke are diabetes and hypertension. People with diabetes often have co-occurring conditions such as hypertension, cholesterol, etc., either together, or with one condition leading to another due to which there is an increased probability that these individuals develop heart diseases or stroke at an earlier age as compared to other people as a result of genetic or environmental influence. It has been found that there