In cancer cells there are promoter regions where free methylation occurs and genes that should not be turned off are turned on. This epigenetic change results in tumours rapidly growing which is an offset for cancer. It is important to note that the methylation doesn’t change the sequence of DNA but rather cause a mechanism for mutations to happen. There is an increase in changes of epigenetics as one grows older which increases the chances of certain diseases such as cancer and diabetes. Mental retardation and epigenetics are also linked Epigenetic change can lead to the mutation of the FMR1 gene which controls cognitive functions.
Cellular integrity, in turn, prevents errors that arise from DNA replication, cellular metabolism, and carcinogenic exposure. These exposures consist of ultraviolet light, radiation, or damaging chemical substances. Many professionals believe that tumor initiation and following progression result from acquired genomic alteration within normal cells. The populations of tumor cells appear to be more unstable genetically than normal unaltered cells. Genomic instability causes individuals to maintain shorter cell cycles and also causes the bypassing of intracellular and immunological control systems.
The regimen used depends on the type of NHL, the stage, and whether the disease is aggressive or indolent.4 Chemotherapy is the use of cytotoxic (cell damaging) medicines to target and kill tumors. The drugs work by interrupting the DNA of fast-growing cells, preventing them from growing or reproducing. Chemotherapy can lead to a variety of side effects.4 Radiation therapy uses high doses of X-rays, gamma rays, or other types of ionizing (damaging) radiation to kill cancer cells. It may be applied to the whole body or to a specific
This isoform, as well as eNOS, is Ca2+ dependent (3), (4). The inducible isoform produces large amounts of NO as a defense mechanism, affecting tumoral or infected cells. Moreover, as the induction of the isoform takes place in an oxidative environment, high levels of NO react with O2, forming superoxide anions that kill macrophages and the infectious particles they contain (3). High concentrations of NO can produce interferences in DNA, breaking and fragmenting it. The activation of this isoform does not depend on Ca2+/calmodulin, but is induced in presence of inflammatory cytokines
Nanotechnology in Pharmaceutical Applications. Introduction Cancer is a genetic disorder caused by DNA mutations that are acquired spontaneously or induced by environmental insults, in which these genetic changes alter the expression or function of key genes that regulates fundamental cellular processes; such as growth, survival and senescence with limitless replication. (1)The word carcinoma was introduced by Hippocrates from the Greek word “Karkinos” which means crab. (2) Cancer has always been a major concern for governments and researchers. For nearly 40 years, the mainstay of cancer treatment has been the same, consisting of surgical restriction, radiation and/or chemotherapy.
DNA methylation is a scenario where the nucleotides in a gene region are heavily methylated preventing transcription (Boyko & Kovalchuk 2010). The gene expression will be low. Hence, proteins are produced in lesser amount or none at all. The phenomenon is often spotted at CpG nucleotides. Histone modification whereas is the post-translational modification of amino acids that make up the histone proteins such as lysine and arginine (Schübeler et al.
Chemotherapy is a drug treatment that uses chemicals to kill cancer cells. The drugs are most often given through a vein, after that the chemotherapy chemicals travel throughout your body. It can also help people with bone cancer that has spread beyond the bone to other areas in the body. Radiation therapy is also an option. Radiation therapy uses high-powered beams of energy to kill cancer cells.
Cancer comes from the accumulation of genetic abnormalities in somatic cells, which are all cells other than reproductive cells. The basic mechanism of cancer is mutation; and mutations can either be acquired because of exposure to carcinogens or inherited from blood related family. Germline mutations are passed through the family and appear in 5-10% of cancer cases. Sporadic or Somatic mutations are caused by exposure to carcinogens throughout someone’s lifetime. They are the result of deficiencies in DNA repair, endogenous and exogenous exposure to carcinogens, and enzymatic alterations in DNA.
Indomethacin is an indole derivative with the IUPAC name 1-(p-chlorobenzoyl)-5-methoxy-2-methylindole-3-acetic acid, shown in figure 1.1. It is poorly soluble in water, but slightly soluble in alcohol. The solubility can be affected by the pH of the dissolution medium, because indomethacin is an acidic drug with a pKa of 4.5. (4) (5)
The high-energetic radioactive ways used in treatment break the nuclear of DNA of cancer cells, which means damages the genetic materials and destroy their ability of reproducing. When cell stops reproducing, it cannot be spread around anymore. Moreover, comparing to other treatments like chemotherapy, radiotherapy is considered as most precise local treatment as it can be used in area of human where cancer cells are spread. For example, it is possible to use radiation to area of eyes, nose, ears, mouth, etc. Due to statistics, between 1987-1995 the study of Michel Bolla and Dionisio Gonzalez showed, that 48% of 415 patients who received radiation therapy achieved overall survival.