The main cause of food insecurity in Africa is the inability to of citizens to gain access to food due to poverty. Many factors have contributed to this problem which leads to an increase in the prevalence of food insecurity (Mwaniki, 2015, p. 1). Factors contributing to food insecurity include: • Drought and other extreme weather events. In recent times it has been seen that major food crisis has been a result of “drought or extreme weather conditions’’, this impacted negatively on crop harvests which in turn caused a food shortage and an increase in food prices (Harvesthelp, 2012). • Pests, livestock diseases and other agricultural problems.
Tsegay (2009), identified low and variable rainfall, traditional farming practices, inaccessibility to productive resources (rural credit), diminishing land holdings and other factors as the causes of food insecurity in Ethiopia. Another study by Meskerem (2011) on household food insecurity in Girar Jarso, one of the Woredas of the Oromia regional state, reveals that shortage of farmland, land fragmentation, overgrazing, soil erosion, high level of age dependency and poor fallowing practice are some of the responsible factors for the lowering of agricultural productivity that in turn leads to the state of food insecurity in the study
As a result, majority of rural inhabitants are suffering from food insecurity. This is mainly because of the soil is incapable to support cultivation caused by soil erosion and its related problems. In the other case, Population in the rural areas of Elfeta district is increasing from time to time and as a result more food is required to feed this population. Consequently, the land size used by the families in the study area is reducing from time to time while the food need is ever increasing. These situations force the family to use the land intensively throughout the year which resulted in soil erosion.
The inability of its agricultural sector to satisfy the demand and the weak purchase power of the population results in food insecurity that often becomes a widespread famine. Overall, the impact of this situation is the accentuation of poverty in the
Especially in agriculture, disasters such as floods, typhoons, and cyclones do play an influential role in production process because they are often difficult to predict accurately or sometimes impossible to prevent. In the case of rice, this determinant may decrease the supply in the market considerably. For example, according to Donald Seekins (2009), in 2008, the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, which is situated in Southeast Asia encountered deadliest hurricane ever, which is called Cyclone Nargis. This disaster brought a lot of damage to the economy of Myanmar in terms of agriculture. In particular, it caused a rice shortage (Sharp decline in supply of rice) and famine in the country.
Poverty in LDCs can be associated with the existence of little or no profit generating ventures, most especially in the rural areas, no or little financial support, overpopula-tion and poor infrastructure which lead to low productivity and persistent poverty in LDCs. Augsburg et al. (2012) argue that problems associated with entrepreneurship and economic growth are credit rationings, which eventually result into a greater level of poverty among the affected people. Tang (1995, pg. 846) argues similarly, that the main economic problem confronting developing countries is “financial intermediation”.
Third, knowledge is dramatically poor in the Egyptian agricultural industry because of limited farmer education & the unavailability of good training, limited research capability. Fourth, the capital of the industry has been increasing in the past few years because of the government commitment to enhancing this sector and the rise of private investments. Fifth, the Egyptian infrastructure is facing several problems such as poor supply chain infrastructure, lack of developments in new lands, limited services capacity and limited private sector participation in those services and the increasing price of energy. Regarding demand conditions, Egypt 's rapidly growing population means that agricultural products might face an increase in demand, however, the local demand is based on price rather than quality; the demand increase was on processed and convenience foods which open the potential of exports and international marketing for
However, despite supplying top quality coffee to the world, Ethiopian coffee farmers remained poor and live in extreme poverty due to market malfunctions and other structural injustices. As a result, they have been receiving prices far below what their coffee deserves; while other actors along the coffee value chain rip the lucrative benefits (Holmberg.
vines, olives) which need to be cultivated in series. Also, the implementation of soil conservation work is harder, the construction costs are higher, more fencing is needed and roads, which are usually adjusted to the shape of parcels, have low geometrical standards. As a result of these problems, productivity decreases and hence the income of farmers also declines. Thus, this situation emphasizes the need for agricultural commercialization via large farm sizes to attain economies of scale. However, although these arguments may seem logical, and many authors have revealed the positive relationship between farm size, productivity and net income (Jian-Ming, 1997), other authors have supported an
scenario that rural non-farm employment opportunities are quite limited and many people are suffering due to want of employment opportunities in the rural areas. At a time when greater inputs of the state are required it seems that the state is shying away from its responsibility. This is quite evident from decline in public investment, the reduced role of formal credit institutions and poor extension services among others. Farmers Suicides The larger agrarian crisis has a terribly adverse effect on farm households. The increasing numbers of farmers committing suicides reflects the symptom of this crisis.