2.2. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK This study will be a reflection of theories which support fleet replacements in parastatals. These include Motor Vehicle Replacement Theory which according to Bartlett (1998) states that it determines what age units should be considered for replacement ideally before costs rise, before reliability or safety is reduced and before major capital expenditure is incurred. Coetzee (1994) says Replacement Theory in Operations Research is used in the decision making process of replacing a used equipment with a substitute, mostly, a new equipment of better usage. The replacement might be necessary due to the deteriorating property or failure or breakdown of particular equipment.
As mentioned, analyzing the revenue cycle on a regular basis will highlight areas that need improvement. Tracking claims that have been submitted, as well as denials, will keep the process moving at a proper speed. Ensuring patients know the policy regarding their responsibility for payment is another way to impact the cycle in a positive way. If the facility requires payment at the time the services are rendered, it is vital to have those payments collected before the patient leaves the office. If the patient is unable to pay the full amount, payment arrangements should be discussed.
Queuing models are an abstraction of Markov chain models. On assessing their empirical validity to assign patrols to City police stations, it has been concluded that queuing theory provides good approximations of the system behaviour. We configure a fleet whose vehicles get calls while on the route. The objective is to minimize operating costs subject to several constraints, including a maximum waiting time for customers, modelled using queuing formulas. Besides the Markov chain and the queuing models, an ambulance service can be studied by computer simulation.
There are the relationship of mutual dependency between shippers and carriers because of the large volume of transportation involved. For example, if the carrier ceases operation, the shipper would experience the serious disruptions in service and result in the higher costs as well as make a short-run closing of production. Therefore, under this mutual dependency, the shipper attempts to provide balanced load for the carrier which is a load into the facility and one out of the facility. The balanced load can eliminate empty backhaul costs that the carrier must account into the initial loaded move. In addition, a balanced load also can enable carrier to spread this round-trip cost over two commodity moves instead of one (Hensley, 2016).
1.4 Overview of forward backward sweep method: The effectiveness of the backward forward sweep method in the analysis of radial distribution systems has already been proven by researchers, by comparing it to the traditional load flow methods. The forward backward sweep method is commonly used due to its computational efficiencies and solution accuracies  . One of the distinguishing features of the radial distribution network is that there is a unique path from any given bus to the source. This is the key feature exploited by the backward/forward sweep class of algorithm . This method is based on updating voltages and currents or power flows along the unique distribution paths.
I have worked with two major design teams, the transport planning and the highways team. In the transportation discipline, I have worked as the lead designer and co-ordinator for Legible London, Southampton, Hampshire Cartography and Westminster school Maps under Ryan Burgess, Senior transport planner (London, Euston) and PawanKumar Adike, Managing Consultant Transport Planner (Bangalore). During this tenure, I was exposed to various softwares, such as ARCADY, PICADY and SATURN and have a hands on knowledge of these tools. I was involved in analyzing various roundabouts, its capacities and delays. In the highways team, I worked as a design engineer for various Middle East and UK projects, such as Doha West (DW) 68, 44, 02 etc and M62 J26 chain bar improvement scheme, A5036 Port of Liverpool under Hariprasad Namshamgiri, Senior Highways Engineer and AnilKumar Veernapu, Group Engineer at WS Atkins.
“It is a flexible, rubber-tyred form of rapid transit that combines stations, vehicles, services, running way and intelligent transportation systems (ITS)elements into an integrated system with a unique identity” (Zimmerman 2001). The bus rapid transit system follows many categories of which it may be operated. According to (Hardy, Stevens & Roberts, 2001) one type of these services are typically operated on high commuting roads headed for distant locations. Furthermore, they would connect to links of other transportation modes. Most of these services require a dedicated or smi-deticated lanes or shoulders.
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction In this chapter, it discussed matters that related to topic research about public stage bus services at Terminal Bus Shahab Perdana. The literature review is crucial parts that to researchers must understand topics to do before starting any research. A literature review discusses published information in a particular subject area, and sometimes information in a particular subject area within a certain time period. A literature review can be just a simple summary of the sources, but it usually has an organizational pattern and combines both summary and synthesis. The researcher gets all information of the research that is relevant journal, article, and report.
But transport mode options are more complicated with respect to particular user groups (LIG, MIG, HIG), because they tend to have different expectations. These expectations ranges from placing comfort features in starting of the process to emphasis on affordability. (Rakesh,
The time and direction split are useful to identify the nature of the traffic flow. Furthermore, this study is to analyze the traffic congestion considering the vehicle count with the vehicle densities for certain time intervals and some parameters associated with the traffic congestion such as traffic volume count, average speed count, free space length count will be taken. Basically, this study is to examine the existing operating condition of a roadway section, the possibility to place HOV lane and to proposed suitable alternative road segment for solve traffic congestion in peak hours. Objectives The goal of this research is to minimize traffic Congestion in peak hours to ensure a satisfactory access to Rathnapura town area. The main aim of this study was to find the solutions for the traffic congestion of the Colombo- Rathnapura road in the city area.