Results and Discussion The effects of ultrasound, electric field strength, the time of applying the field and sonication time on a number of E. coli, and energy consumption of the process in mint distillate were investigated. As shown in Table (), the full quadratic model for the data had a significant effect on the reduction of E. coli in the samples of mint distillate. The adjusted determination coefficient, standard error and coefficient of variation (C.V) of the model were equal to 0.9984, 0.049 and 2.39, respectively. According to ANOVA (Table 1-4), with the exception of the electric field strength coefficient* sonication time and the time of applying the electric field * sonication time, other coefficients of the variables in the model
The ideal gas law, followed by a mole ratio were then used to calculate the volume of one mol of H_2 at ambient conditions. After that, the combined gas law was used to calculate the volume of one mol of H_2 at STP. Before calculating the experimental gas constant, the volume of air space in the flask was calculated, using the volume of empty air space in the flask and the 5 mL of HCl. Result calculations for all trials are shown in “Table 2”. (0.0107 g Mg)/1×(1 mol Mg)/(24.305 g Mg)=(4.40×〖10〗^(-4) mol Mg)/1×(1 mol H_2)/(1 mol Mg)=4.40×〖10〗^(-4) mol H_2 23.63 ̊C + 273.15 K = 296.78 K (8.1 kPa)/1×(1 atm)/(101.325 kPa)=0.0799
The purpose of this investigation was to demonstrate a relationship between change in volume and pressure. It kept the room temperature, room humidity, and mix of particles constant so that only the volume influenced the pressure. 10 tests were conducted with the volume beginning at 60 mL and decreasing at equal intervals of 4 mL, ending at 20 mL and each test had 3 trials so that the average represented a more accurate result. The results of each trial were recorded in Table 1. Then, the averages for each test were calculated and recorded in Table 2.
Determining Smallest Possible Charge on Droplet Using Millikan Oil Drop Experiment Simulation Abstract: The purpose of this lab was to determine the value of the smallest charge using a Millikan oil drop simulation on the TI-83+ graphing calculator. This was done by using a program on the TI-83+ graphing calculator, where an oil droplet was placed on the screen and cursor keys were used to adjust the voltage until the droplet is suspended. The droplets radius, voltage, plate separation, and charge are then stored into the system. The simulation was repeated for 40 droplets. After the mass and charge of the oil was calculated, then rearranged depending on step size to find smallest charge, which was 1.67E-19.
Explain how the molarity of the standard solution (the alkali) was calculated in the experiment (equation explained)- 0.1M of NaOH is required, this equation will be used: Concentration = moles volume This will be rearranged to find the moles needed to carry out the experiment. The concentration of the experiment using NaOH is 0.1M so we just need to rearrange the equation to find the molarity. 0.1 x 0.250 = 0.0250 moles Number of moles = mass RFM 0.0250 = mass 40 0.0250 x 40 + 1g (mass) Explain how this enabled you to accurately calculate the molarity of each acid used in the titrations (equations explained)- Molarity of the acid = molarity of the alkali x volume of the alkali volume of acid Firstly we will need to add up all of the volumes found within the titration to find an average: 13.10+13.20+13.10= 13.13 Molarity of Ethanoic acid = 0.1 x 25.00 = 0.190 mol dm-3 13.13 Molarity of Hydrochloric acid = 1.0 x 25.00 = 0.077 mol dm-3 32.53
For calculations, refer to Appendix E. Finally, multiplying Ymax by Avagadro’s number will give the number of AA molecules adsorbed on the surface of one gram of charcoal at saturation. Since the approximate surface area occupied by a single AA molecule is 2.1E-19 m2, one can calculate the total surface area of one gram of charcoal. For calculations, refer to Appendix F. Note that all uncertainties from several dilution steps, weighing of the charcoal, the titration steps, and every measurement are taken into account when determining Y and C/Y. The calculated uncertainties are used to draw the error bars on the plots in Figure 1 and Figure
The lungs were ventilated using a Datex Ohmeda (ASPIRE 5 U.S.A.) ventilator with a circuit incorporating C02 absorber. A continuous fresh gas flow of 4 L/min, an inspiratory:expiratory ratio of 1:2 and zero end-expiratory pressure were applied. In both groups, respiratory frequency and inspiratory tidal volume were adjusted to provide an end-tidal carbon dioxide tension of -in-45 mm Hg during surgery. Carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum was introduced and maintained with intra-abdominal insufflation pressure limited to 10-12 mmHg in both groups. During surgery, the infusion rates were adjusted at 10-15 ml/kg/h to maintain values of systolic arterial blood pressure and heart rate within ± 20% of baseline values.
Add 160µL of double distilled water maintained at the same temperature to the transparent solutions formed, these upon cooling change to yellow translucent liquid/gel or white creamy proliposomal gel. Proliposomal gel formulations with positive and negative charge were prepared in above mentioned manner by adding 10 mol% of total lipid of stearylamine
Fractional distillation is a separation technique used to separate two liquids with different boiling points and keep the liquid. To do this, we set it up just like the distillation lab with the 10-15mL in the test tube over the fire and the tube leading the the test tube in the beaker. The first time you go through, the same test tube is left in the whole time but you must record the temperature around every 10-15 seconds using your labquest. You then find two places where the temperature is consistent for a few seconds, this is your plateau. The second time you go through, change out the test tubes as soon as you get to your first plateau, this liquid is liquid one.
Determination of ΔH and ΔS Using the plot of lnKsp versus 1/T, the slope of the best-fit equation and the y-intercept was found. Using van’t Hoff equation, the change in enthalpy ΔH and entropy ΔS of the dissolution reaction was found to be 44 ± 1.3 kJ K-1 mol-1 and 89 ± 4 J K-1 mol-1 respectively. Using van’t Hoff equation, lnK = - (ΔH°reaction)/RT + (ΔS°reaction)/R where ΔH°reaction and ΔS°reaction ¬are the standard enthalpy and entropy change of the reaction respectively. From Figure 1, the gradient and y-intercept was obtained as shown in Table 4 in the Appendix. The enthalpy change and entropy change was then calculated.