Al Mawardi's Theory Of Caliphate

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Introduction:
Abul Hasan Ali bin Muhammad bin Habib-al-Mawardi was born in 974 AD. He was the first writer in the entire Islamic history who wrote on the subject of political theory. He received traditional education and has done much work on subjects like law, Quran and ethics. But his principal concerns were government and administration, and most of his work is about running the government at all levels and world of law. He is one of the most learned jurists in the history of Islam. No jurist or political philosopher except Ibn-e-Khuldoon has matched or improved upon his work, and it is believed that none ever will. He died in 1058 AD.
Some of his greatest works in the field of political theory are:
1) Al-Ahkam at-Sultaniyah
2) Nasihat-ul-Muluk
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He must consult the Holy Quran and Sunnah if he comes across any difficulty regarding social and political administration. According to Mawardi, Imam is the backbone of any Islamic society or state. In order to ensure peace and tranquility, it is necessary that the people stand firmly with their Imam and trust him with their lives. There were many questions raised on the qualities of Imam, like which family or tribe should he belong to? Do Imams come from any specific family? These and such other questions are responsible for the sects in Islam. A group, especially Shias, says that it is the specific right of a particular family. Another group says that it is specific Quraish, and the third group presented by Mawardi says that the Imam should be elected on the basis of merits.
Criteria for the Selection of Imam:
Al-Mawardi has mentioned a few must have qualities for any Imam. They are as follows:
1) Gender: An Imam must necessarily be a male. A female is not considered eligible to be the
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The Imam can easily nominate any suitable person as his successor, provided that person does not happen to be his father or son. For example, when Hazrat Abu Bakar nominated Hazrat Umar as the next caliph, there was perfect consensus among the Muslims that he was the right man to be the caliph, simply because he was nominated by the order of the caliph.
Duties of Imam:
In light of Mawardi’s theory of Imamate, every Imam is obliged to perform certain duties. They are as follows:
1) To protect and uphold the sacred laws and teachings of the religion and to help a common man understand Shariah.
2) To impart justice in accordance with the laws of Shariah.
3) To maintain law and order in the country and to safeguard the lives, wealth and respect of the individuals.
4) To defend the country from external forces and threats.
5) To provide fundamental rights of food, shelter, education, clothes etc. to all individuals.
6) To collect Zakat from the rich according to the laws of Shariah and to ensure that it reaches the needy and deserving.
7) To sanction funds or allowances etc. to all those who need them for fulfilling basic needs.
Rebellion against the

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