A theoretical perspective is a set of assumptions about reality that inform the questions we ask and the kinds of answers we arrive as as a result. In a way, these perspectives can be thought of as a frame, which serves to both include and exclude certain things from our view. The following is a very general outline summarizing the theories: Behaviorism, Social Learning Theory, Information Processing Theory, Constructivism and Sociocultural Theory. The first theory is the Human Behavior Theory - Behaviorism is a view that assumes a learner is responding to environmental stimuli. It is learning that is based on external factors that causes changes in observable behaviors.
The Social Learning Theory Overview Shameka Price CCJ4014: Criminological Theory The University of Florida March 11, 2018 Shameka Price CCJ4014: Criminological Theory March 11, 2018 The Social Learning Theory Overview There 's a old quote that says, "Be careful who your friends are because you will pick up their bad traits." Many different factors can influence our learning. At some point in our lives, we have learned by observing the behaviors of others. Observation can play a very important role in determining what and how we learn. It can have positive or negative effects on one 's development and behavior, especially in children.
There is evidence and arguments that behavioral learning can be impacted by human nature, social environment, and personal factors in human being lives . Freud psychodynamic theory plays the causes of behavior in the individual in which states that behavior was driven by unconscious impulses and complexes within the individual personal and behavior aspects. Behavioral Learning Social learning theory is one of the most influential theories because it is the view people learn by observing others. Social learning theory is one of the most influential theories of learning and human development and is rooted in many of the basic concepts of traditional learning. The theory focuses on learning that occurs within a social
Albert Bandura believed that people learn through observing others behavior, attitudes and outcomes of those behaviors. Most of the human observed others behavior through modeling and from the observation, one will have an idea for a new behavior to perform on later occasions. Social learning theory explains human behavior in term of continuous mutual interaction between cognitive, behavior and environment influence. For the summary, Bandura believed that social learning theory is people learn from one another, by observations, simulated and modeling. Social learning theory usually called a connection between behaviorist and cognitive learning theory as it is concerned attention, memory, and
Kohlberg’s theory also discussed the idea that moral development occurs when there is advanced thoughts, the leadership roles available, and discussing morals with a higher staged person (King, 2016). The question I chose is, is morality more of an innate behavior or a learned behavior? The first article had two experiments and the first experiment asked kids to respond to moral dilemmas (The Moral Judgement Test) and then their answers were scored (Benninga, 1980). The answers were scored based off of the idea that a mature response was one point and if it was not a mature response they received a zero. The second experiment that was conducted was to test against the results from the first experiment.
Zastrow and Kirst-Ashman (2013) describe a perspective of Social learning theory in that previous theorists were interested in the behavioral component of morality. This particular element argues that we as individuals gradually learn to behave morally from an early age. As children grow they will be faced with situations that require them to access prior experiences that lay a foundation of expectations and standards of conduct (Zastrow et al.’s 2013). From an early age children view their parents as role models for doing what is right versus what is wrong (Zastrow et al.’s 2013). Sharaf, Thompson and Walsh (2009) provide an interesting example of this regarding suicide risk behaviors for at risk adolescents in that their findings confirm
The second theorist introduced is Vygotsky and his theory was influenced by Karl Marx’s proposal “that historical changes in society have significant impact on how people think and behave” (215). Piaget used a clinical method, in order to seek his theory of cognitive development. This allowed Piaget to understand how children and adolescents learn. On the other hand, Vygotsky used tangible items like stories, paper, and writing utensils to determine how the society would move forward. An educational difference from Vygotsky is that parents, teachers, and other adults has having an impact on how children learn and grow.
OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING The Social Learning Theory, also known as observational learning, involves how a learner changes behaviour and obtains knowledge as a result of watching others within their environment. Albert Bandura (1977) considered observational learning as the process that explains the nature of children learning behaviours by watching the behaviour of the people in their environment, and ultimately, imitating them. Observational learning will be applied to demonstrate how in the phonics activity, students act as observers, and the teacher as the model, where imitation of actions create a learning process resulting in the students being able to independently trace the ‘h’ letter shape, ultimately learning through observation.
Lovette1 Emily Lovette Jennafer White Psyc 2301 January 29, 2015 The Bobo Doll Experiment Is human behavior learned through social interaction and imitation or is it an inherited gene? Albert Bandura believed that human behavior is a learned behavior. He contended that children that were exposed to an adult that showed aggressive behavior were more likely to exhibit more aggressive behavior. Likewise, children exposed to an adult exhibiting passive behavior would be more passive. He contended that the children exposed to passive behavior would be even less likely to be aggressive than the group that were not exposed to adult at all.
This study was based on Jessor 's "Problem Behavior Theory”. This is a systematic, multivariate, social-psychological conceptual framework derived initially from the basic concepts of value and expectation in Rotter 's (1954, 1982) (Rotter, 1982, Rotter, 1954) social learning theory and from Merton 's (1957) concept of anomie. According to the social learning theory, learning occurs through modelling. Thus, substance use behaviours may occur through peer influence, where peer model substance use or make substances more readily available or exert mutual influence to use substances as well as peer norms that encourage and perpetuate substance use. Due to this social learning, peers who use substance are more likely to have substance using friends who act as reinforcing agents.