In the round-bottom flask (100 mL), we placed p-aminobenzoic acid (1.2 g) and ethanol (12 mL). We swirled the mixture until the solid dissolved completely. We used Pasteur pipet to add concentrated sulfuric acid (1.0 mL) to the flask. We added boiling stone and assembled the reflux. Then, we did reflux for 75 minutes.
The final volume was recorded. A pH probe connected through Microlab was calibrated using buffer solutions of pH 4.00, 7.00, and 10.00. The calibrated pH probe was used in order to measure the pH of the titrated solution of the unknown weak acid. These same steps were repeated except 2 mL of the strong base were titrated into the weak acid solution instead of 4 mL. This process was repeated 10 times.
Experimental Methods: 1. SYNTHESIS OF 4-BENZOYL BUTYRIC ACID METHYL ESTER Materials required * 5 oxopentanoic acid : 2 gm (Aldrich) * Methanol : 50 ml * Acetic Acid (Rankem) Procedure: * 2 grams of 5 oxopentanoic acid was weighed and placed in a round bottom flask and then to it 50 ml of methanol was added. It was placed on a hot plate and the temperature was increased to 50 degrees under ambient air conditions. * To the RB, 2 ml of acetic acid was added and then by attaching a condenser the entire reaction was put on refluxing at 70 degrees Celsius in an oil bath. * For work up: * The reaction media was concentrated till about 10 ml and then dry silica gel was added.
After which the digestions were examined by gel electrophoresis. The samples were run on a 50 mL 0.9% (w/v) agarose gel in 1X TAE buffer at 100 V until the leading track dye traveled 2/3 the distance of the gel. The gel was then soaked in GelRed for 20 minutes and examined under UV light. To prepare the digestions 10 μL of each digestion was mixed with 2 μL of 6X track dye in a micro centrifuge tube. 12 μL of 1 kb DNA ladder and each digestion was run on the
EC 3 are hydrolases, which forms two products from the substrate via hydrolysis. (Bach, et al. 1961) This is seen in the equation: L- Arginine + H2OL-Ornithine + Urea (Nelson and Cox 2008). The urea cycle is the procedure where ammonia is transformed into to urea. Throughout the urea cycle, the amino acid, arginine, is changes into ornithine- this is another amino acid when hydrated, that is when water was added.
Figure4 - the chemical structure of sucrose. Figure5 - the chemical structure of lactose. Cellular respiration is when food molecules like glucose are oxidised to form carbon dioxide and water. Adenosine triphosphate is created by a catabolic pathway to be used by the cell. Cellular respiration happens in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.
5-aminotetrazole monohydrate: In a 250 ml round-bottom flask equipped with a condenser for refluxing (90 °C) and a magnetic stirring bar, 5.00 g (5.95 mmol) dicyandiamide (three times crystallized), 7.47 g (11.9 mmol) sodium azide and 11.00 g (17.8 mmol) boric acid and 100 ml of water is added and allowed to reflux for 24 hours, after the completion of the reaction, until the solution pH to about 2 to 3 as hydrochloric acid 37% is added (about 12 ml) Then the reaction mixture was cooled in a refrigerator for 18 hours and the white crystals formed. The mixture was filtered and washed three times with 10 ml of water and and dried in 60 °C for 5 hours and finally 45.8 g of product by it will be obtained. 5-Aminotetrazol monohydrate: Yield:,
Absorption was read by spectrophotometer at wave length (510CHOL) and (505TG). 6. After this we applied the following equation Result = ×CON. standard Extraction of tissue The extract one gram of fat tissue using n hexane, resolve to dissolve tissue homogenizer homogeneity by adding 1 ml of the same solution to become a 3: 1 and continued homogeneity of the sample to become a solution homogeneity. The solution homogeneity expelled, by centrifugation for 10 min.
Medium and culture conditions Cells were grown in a 100-mL flask containing 25 mL into minimal medium supplemented with Eugenol for 2, 4 and 6 days incubation at 37 °C. The following Table 3. represents the composition of the modified minimal media used for biotransformation of eugenol (Muheim and Lerch, 1999). The pH of the medium was adjusted between 7.0 to 7.25 and autoclaved to obtain sterilized media for further
For example, fermentation occurs in yeast in order to gain energy by transforming sugar into alcohol. Fermentation is also used by bacteria, they convert carbohydrates into lactic acid. Ethanol fermentation is done by yeast and certain bacteria, when pyruvate is separated into ethanol and carbon dioxide. Ethanol fermentation has a net chemical equation: C6H12O6 (glucose) > 2C2H5OH (ethanol) + 2CO2 (carbon dioxide). This process of ethanol fermentation is used in the making of wine, bread, and beer.