This was repeated until no more gas was released. Next, the funnel was suspended through a ring, and 10 ml of 5% sodium hydroxide was added. When the two layers were separated in the separatory funnel, the aqueous layer was identified. The two layers were then separated into two different beakers. The water layer was acidified by adding concentrated hydrochloric
N-(1-Carboxymethyl-1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-hydrazinium nitrate (3). A solution of AgNO3 (0.10 g, 0.60 mmol) in distilled water (1.5 mL) was added dropwise in the dark to the solution of compound 2 (0.10 g, 0.60 mmol) in Deionized water (1.5 mL) under stirring. After 2-3 hour, the precipitate was filtered, and rinsed with 4 mL distilled water. The solvent was removed by rotary Evaporation to produce a white solid at 88% yield (0.10 g); N-(1-Carboxymethyl-1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-hydrazinium nitrate: Yield: 88%; yellow crystals;. IR (KBr): 3396, 3329, 3140, 3008, 1628, 1494, 1383 cm-1; UV (H2O): λmax = 293-296
It was found that the compound was solid and white in color. The unknown compound was then tested solubility in water and the compound was soluble in the water. The flame test was performed for four know compound calcium chorine, sodium chlorine and ammonium chorine and the unknown compound. When unknown compound was put on the fire different color are produce. When we smell the unknown compound it indicated the presence of chorine.
The pH was found to be 7, which is in the range of a healthy person’s pH (which is 7.4).Benedict`s solution is made up of alkaline copper sulphate and sodium citrate (blue in colour) (Danson and et al, 1996). When it is put in a hot water bath (boiled) when there are reduced sugars, cupric ion is decreased by sugars changing it into an insoluble red cuprous oxide. The solution will change to yellow, orange, green or red, for rising levels of sugar, and will stay blue if no sugar is detected. If the solutions stay the same (blue), the result is negative. In this experiment, the colour remained blue and thus there were no sugars present in the solution.
Then, putting of choloform in amount of 10 mL and solution of Hanus iodine as amount of 10 mL into conical flask is realized. Addition of these two substance into otheraflask also occurs for blank. Next, waiting for these two samples for exactly 30 minutes is realized. Afterthat, solution of potassium iodine in amount of 15 mL and 40 mL water being distilled are added. Titration of last mixture is performed in company with 0.1 M Na2S2O3 until the obtaining of color in yellow.
The ester studied was “3,” the acid used was 9.5 mL of “B,” and the alcohol used was 18.1 mL of “C.” A few substances were added to augment the production of the ester. Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) was added using a dropper bottle to catalyze the reaction. The desiccant in this reaction was drierite and was used to absorb the water byproduct. This prevented the ester from breaking apart into its constituents. The cold finger condenser was used to trap evaporated gas from the heated mixture, and condense it back into
Wash ether layer with saturated sodium chloride solution and retain ether layer. In a small 125ml Erlenmeyer flask, dry the ether solution over anhydrous calcium chloride. Add sufficient calcium chloride so that it no longer clumps to pellets added earlier on the bottom of the flask. Remove the solvent using a rotary evaporator and weigh product. Results 1 mole of benzoic acid (C6H5COOH = 122.12grams) reacts with 1 mole of methanol (CH3OH = 32grams/mole) to produce 1 mole of methyl benzoate (C6H5COOCH3 = 136.15grams) and 1 mole of water.
The wax melted first, followed by the salt, and lastly the sugar. The salt not only burned before the sugar, but developed a brown color throughout most of the substance at a faster pace. In the water solubility test, the salt dissolved in the water, as soon as it was properly mixed and the sugar dissolved in the water as well, but was stirred for a longer period of time until it was completely dissolved. The wax did not dissolve in the water, however bits of the substance broke off from the main piece. With this information, the final results included: wax as a nonpolar covalent compound, since the substance melted first and was not soluble in water; salt as a polar covalent compound, since the substance was soluble in water and the second to melt; and sugar as an ionic compound because the substance melted last and was soluble in
Part 2 . Reactions with HCl Both magnesium and calcium were repeated placing in 3 ml of 6M HCl. Both solution released colourless gas bubble after placing the metals in the test tubes. Both solutions were tested with burning wooden splinter placing near to the mouth of the test tubes, both of the test tubes produced a ‘pop’ sound. Below are the equations of the reactions
SDS-Polyacrylamide gels were prepared and the glass plates were washed with 70% ethanol and water. After drying the plates, water was used for test leakages. Two SDS-Polyacrylamide gels were prepared according to the following recipe. These all above components of the running gel were added in a 50 ml tube and solutions were mixed and pipetted into the prepared gel chambers. Glass plates were filled ¾ and the gel was covered with 100-500 µl Isopropanol in order to achieve an even surface.
While swirling the phosphoric acid solution in the Erlenmeyer flask, the sodium hydroxide solution was added to it a few drops at a time using a disposable plastic pipette. The After all the sodium hydroxide was transferred, the flask was rinsed with 2 mL of deionized water and added to the flask with the reaction mixture and swirled for an additional minute. A clean, dry evaporating dish with a watch glass was then weighed and recorded to 0.001 g. The reaction mixture was then transferred to the evaporating dish. The flask was then rinsed with 2 mL of deionized water and added to the evaporating dish containing the reaction mixture.
In part C. pairs of compounds were investigated to determine whether the compounds were miscible or immiscible. Diethyl ether and methylene chloride, diethyl ether and ethyl alcohol, water and ethyl alcohol, heptane and methyl chloride, and heptane and diethyl ether were all were found to be miscible each of these paired compounds showed a homogenous mixture with no chunks or particles left over when combined. On the other hand, water and heptane, water and methylene chloride, and water and diethyl ether were all immiscible, when mixed together it was observed that the compounds had two layers rather than one homogenous
Two chemical reactions are carried by adding sodium hydroxide to the acidic solution from Part I. During the first reaction is the neutralization of the excess of nitric acid in the mixture by sodium hydroxide. The second reaction takes the place after naturalization is a complete and NaOH is in excess. While the liquid inside the beaker is being stirred, with the stirring rod, 10 ml of 6 M NaOH is poured into the solution from Part I at 1 mL at a time. After each 1 mL the solution is tested for acidity with red litmus paper.
Name: University: Course: Date: Abstract I. Introduction/Motivation: The objective of this experiment was to characterize the behavior of a distillation column running in continuous mode. Two types of liquids were separated: 2-propanol and methanol (at 25 mol% and 75 mol% respectively). The motivation of this investigation was to achieve 85% of methanol recovery from the distillate. II. Methodology: The distillation column was analyzed theoretically using McCabe Thiele to establish the number of stages required for separation.