Hypothalamus Gland Hormones and Their Functions Katherine M. Gaub Western Dakota Tech Hypothalamus Gland Hormones and Their Functions The Hypothalamus gland is responsible for regulating certain metabolic processes and other activities of the autonomic nervous system such as, controlling the body temperature, hunger, thirst, fatigue, sleep, attachment behavior, and circadian rhythms. This gland, which is about the size of an almond, is located at the base of the brain and is near the Pituitary gland and just below the thalamus. The Hypothalamus contains neurons that are responsible for releasing different hormones. The hormones that are secreted are; Gonadotropin releasing hormone, Thyrotropin releasing hormone, Corticotropin releasing hormone,
An example of a disease that results from an imbalance in a negative feedback mechanism is Cushing’s Syndrome/disease. Cushing’s Syndrome occurs when our body produces high levels of a glucocorticoid hormone called cortisol. When produced at the ideal level, cortisol is very beneficial to our body for it helps regulate blood pressure and the immune system. A normal production of cortisol begins when a hormone (produced in the hypothalamus) called corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) stimulates cells in the pituitary gland that make the hormone called adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Adrenocorticotropic is then carried through the bloodstream to the adrenal gland where cortisol is produced.
Assignment 1 – Unit 11 Physiology of Human Body Systems Task 1 The lymphatic system is the system which is involved in homeostasis in our body by draining the interstitial fluid. It is also in charge of defending our bodies from diseases. This is because the lymphatic system provides the place for formation and maturation of the lymphocytes which the white blood cells involved in immunity which are activate when they are in contact with antigens. Also the lymphatic system stops fluid form building up in the tissues in our body and its acts as a filter for the blood and removes the pathogens and antigens from the blood. Role of the parts: Lymph nodes – Lymph nodes are enclosed, located around the lymph vessels.
through the activation of intrinsic and extrinsic pathways (Figure-1.1), Current evidence supports the understanding that intrinsic pathway is not a parallel pathway but indeed it augments thrombin generation primarily initiated by the extrinsic pathway. Newer model describes coagulation with following steps: Initiation > Amplification > propagation > stabilization. The coagulation proteins also called clotting factors (Table-1) reactions are the core components of the coagulation system that lead to the conversion of fibrinogen into fibrin strands helping to stabilize a platelet plug, as well as isolating it from the normal circulation, thus acting as a further feedback mechanism. Activated fibrin will basically entangle platelets, and RBCs in a big blood clot, the anticoagulant system exerts a regulatory role over the procoagulant activity thus localizing the thrombus formation. The main anticoagulant mechanisms naturally present in the body include the following: Antithrombin, Tissue factor plasminogen inhibitor(TFPI), protein C, protein S, protein Z dependent protease inhibitor(PZI).
CJC 1295 – Review CJC 1295 is also knows as DAC: GRF. It is primarily used to increase the growth of plasma hormone. It is defined as a synthetic peptide hormone, which is used as injection into human body. It is similar to the growth releasing hormone, which stimulates pituitary gland to release growth hormone. Growth hormone itself is an anabolic hormone so it is used in the production of some other types of anabolic hormones such as IGF-1.
Essay 112: Vitamin K and the Coagulation Cascade The human blood clotting cascade consists of a tightly regulated network of enzymes designed to contain damage to the blood vessels by means of coagulation, thus restoring vascular integrity. Briefly, when a blood vessel suffers penetrating trauma, blunt force trauma, or an internal rupture the clotting cascade swings into action. The various proteins activate one another culminating in the formation of a clot composed of a platelet plug and cross linked strands of fibrin. The clot, or thrombus, acts as damage control, stopping further loss of blood through the wound. Physiologists divide the clotting cascade into three branches: the extrinsic pathway, consisting of Factors III and
Endocrine system The main function of endocrine glands is to secrete hormones into the bloodstream. Hormones are chemical substances that effect the activity of another part of the body e.t.c organ. In one word, hormones serve as messengers, controlling and coordinating activities throughout the body. Fundamentally, hormones control the function of entire organs, affecting such processes as growth and development, reproduction, and sexual characteristics. Although hormones circulate throughout the body, each type of hormone influences only certain organs and tissues.
In the stomach, milk proteins casein and whey mix with HCL and pepsinogen. HCL is secreted by parietal cells which line the walls of the stomach. Pepsinogen is secreted by gastric chief cells, becoming active when contacting HCL. HCL causes proteins to denature. Casein and whey are now accessible to pepsin (the active form of pepsinogen) to be broken down into peptides for easier digestion in the small intestine.
Leukotrienes (LT) are fatty acid-derived mediators containing a conjugated triene structure. They are formed when arachidonic acid (Chapter 26) is liberated from the cell membrane of cells, as a result of cell activation by allergic or other noxious stimuli. 5-Lipoxygenase is the enzyme required for the synthesis of LTA4, which is an unstable epoxide precursor of the two subgroups of biologically important leukotrienes. LTB4 is a dihydroxy 20-carbon-atom fatty acid which is a potent pro-inflammatory chemo-attractant. The other group is the cysteinyl leukotrienes (LTC4, LTD4 and LTE4).
Milk and wheat proteins also act as endogenous endorphins as they can generate substances with opioid like activity. These substances have been termed "exorphins." Casomorphins are peptides with an opioid effect resulting from the digestion of milk protein casein. Additionally, endorphins influence feeding and satiety when injected in the hypothalamus and reinforce behavior when injected in the midbrain (Hobel, 1985). Endogenous opioids or opioid agonists (Benzodiazepines, Methadone, and Butorphanol Tartarate) enhance feeding, whereas nonspecific opioid antagonists (naloxone, naltrexone) suppress feeding (Levine et al., 1985).