Society is constantly under the criticism of authors. Many writers seek to expose certain aspects of American society and their scorn of it. Edith Wharton and F. Scott Fitzgerald are renowned for their work on this subject. In The Great Gatsby and The Age of Innocence, Fitzgerald and Wharton reveal their cynicism of the societal elite; they find the elite as a severe detriment to American society. Through symbolism and the characterization of their main characters, Wharton and Fitzgerald similarly depict the societal elite as depriving American society from a promising future by refusing to let go of the past.
During this period, freedom of feelings and creativity. This may have lead to Extreme Skepticism to occur after all the writings infused with strong feelings. Sigmund Freud's book Civilisation and its Discontents prove that his writings make him one of the founders of Modernism. The theme of “Conscience and the Super-Ego” (Gradesaver, Civilisation and its Discontents) plays out in the book as a form of Skepticism. He argues that the Super-Ego is responsible for the “discontents” that human beings experience in civilisation as “The super-ego often puts severe demands on the individual that he cannot realistically met, causing great unhappiness.” (Gradesaver, Civilisation and its Discontents).
Oliver Goldsmith wrote the poem ‘The Deserted Village’ in protest against the social changes that he witnessed during his travels around England. There are numerous quotes in the poem that encapsulate the message that Goldsmith is trying to put across. The fictional village of Auburn has now become a place ‘where wealth accumulates, and men decay’; this is quite a disturbing image as it is now evident that Auburn is no longer the beautiful and rustic village that it was before the introduction of the Enclosure acts. The quote in question encapsulates the theme and is of extreme importance to ones understanding of the work; it sums up the message and the argument that Goldsmith is trying to put across. Goldsmith is completely condemning the new social changes that are taking place, he radically expresses his feelings against the rule of England through the medium of poetry.
In the Romantic Period, a new movement is emerged in literature. This movement is started with the publication of the Lyrical Ballads which is written by William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge. Hugh Holman states that; Romanticism is a literary and philosophical theory which tends to see the individual at the very centre of all life and all experience, and it places the individual, therefore, at the centre of art, making literature most valuable as an expression of his or her unique feelings and particular attitudes. (Holman 1980) Romantic writers make some innovations in theme, setting and etc. against traditional understanding of literature and traditional writers.
Reason and enlightenment played a dominant role during the period of the age of reason. Satirical and skeptical were the mode of their writing style. Emotions, feelings, instinct and idealism are keys for the writer those emerged during the Romantic and Gothic period in American literature. Imagination and autobiographical elements dominate in the works whereas supernatural elements are blended in the works of the Dark Romantics. Autonomy and individualism are given preference by the transcendentalists.
Socratic Dialogue in “The Decay of Lying” In Oscar Wilde’s 1889 essay, “The Decay of Lying,” Wilde makes an inflammatory and risky statement with his choice of form and style. The use of Socratic dialogue was a throwback to Plato’s time when art was truly valued and appreciated and social issues were not discussed by long, uneventful, and rather boring novels. Wilde speaks on a profound subject through this form because of his distaste with realism and his motivation to steer the focus of literature toward the Greek ideal. Oscar Wilde’s choice of dialogue is an appropriation of an earlier generation and a spectacle for his current time that started progressive conversations and added new subjects to the social agenda. Wilde deeply cared about
Albert Camus and Franz Kafka wrote novels that describe those three themes of existentialism and how they impact the characters they wrote in their stories. Camus’s introduced a man named Meursault whose own thoughts and opinions isolated him from the norm of society, his lack of fear or anxiety towards his actions resulted in his own demise, and showed that when a man commits actions, choosing whether or not to accept responsibility could lead to more problems depending on the choices made. Kafka turned a man named Gregor into a bug. This unexpected action forced not only Gregor into isolation, but those protecting him, the worry about the future harmed both sides of the
Austen, on the other hand, was an other from the romantic period. The power of these works of literature to shape their culture and catapult change in social values is both inspiring and necessary. Literature has the ability to change the world, and when looking at how the thematic elements of the past impacted their future, people can understand the importance of the written word and the arts as a whole. Society craves change and by creating works that question current systems of thought the change desired can be more effectively implemented into any given culture. Fiction British literature of the 1800s is an example of the power in literature and evidence that social change can be enacted through creative
Was the old world end? Writers reacted to this question by turning toward Modernist emotion. Modernist fiction spoke of the inner self and consciousness. Instead of progress, the Modernist writer saw a decline of civilization. Instead of new technology, the Modernist writer saw cold machinery and increased capitalism, which alienated the individual and led to loneliness.
Current literary criticism is affected by and reveals the beliefs of our times in the same way that literature reflects and is reflected by its own historical contexts. Mikics(2007) notes that Foucault’s idea that structures of thought shape everyone and everything within a culture did influence New historicism as a literary