In Race in America, Matthew Desmond and Mustafa Emirbayer highlight misbeliefs that people think to be true about racism. There are five fallacies: the individualistic fallacy, the legalistic fallacy, the tokenistic fallacy, the fixed fallacy, and the ahistorical fallacy. The individualistic fallacy maintains that racism is only clear, spoken interpersonal prejudices. This is harmful because it completely ignores systematic and structural racism. People that fall under the legalistic fallacy think that removing racist laws ends racism in everyday life.
This study confirms that racism is now of the individual, as not all Americans harbor these beliefs. Moreover, in “Government and politics won’t solve our racial problem”, the author defines the difference between racial bigotry and institutionalized racism, and declares that racial bigotry, not institutionalized racism, plagues our nation. Parker defines racial bigotry as “personal behavior...personal affairs of the heart” (Parker). The inclusion of ‘“personal” in the definition implies that the behavior is of an individual. Cooper discusses the relation of Millennials to racism.
The piece of writing which I felt was unsuccessful for me was the Rhetorical Analysis of an article relating to a topic from our course book The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness by Michelle Alexander. This piece of writing was difficult for me to organize my ideas around. The article that I decided to use for my rhetorical analysis highlighted mass incarceration among African American and the effect of civil liberties being are taken away from these individuals. I had a lot of repetition because many of the examples I used demonstrated more than one type of appeal. I found myself repeating what the purpose of the example was and how it demonstrated proper use of ethos, pathos, and logos.
Virginia” par 2).” Some of the same morals and biases used to make African- American’s feel inferior were applied to this case. The same prejudice used with Jim Crow Laws was some of Virginia’s ammunition against the Loving’s. I do agree with the court’s verdict of the case. The liberty of who to marry lies fully and solely with the individuals. Although the case did take place during a time of racial tensions and discrimination race is not a factor of love.
However, Michelle Alexander disproves in “The New Jim Crow” that blacks commit more crimes than whites, the drug usage rates are the same between both races, propaganda has influenced the way mainstream society views blacks and that the “War on Drugs” and the “Get Tough on Crime” was policies targeted towards inner cities and people of color with the intent to enslave them in the criminal justice system by giving them felonies in which people of color are disenfranchise by society. The author calls this a “Racial Caste System” because it discriminates like it never has before, since it allows anyone who is labeled a “felon” to be legally discriminated against with housing, education, employment and voting rights. Since many more people of color are made felons than white by mass incarceration, racial discrimination is a powerful as it was under slavery or under the post-slavery era of Jim Crow
Lee uses Miss Gates’s ironic views of Hitler and Tom’s trial to show how racial prejudice causes crimes against African Americans to be considered less than crimes committed against white people. A mockingbird is then used to symbolize Tom Robinson as an innocent person wrongly convicted of a crime because of his skin color. The misunderstood characterization of Arthur Radley shows how society will let prejudice guide their imaginated view on the lives of people they don't understand. All three characters provide examples of how a preconceived opinion of one person or a whole race can cause drastic misunderstandings and
It may not be cause for concern if one is unfairly found guilty for a simple act, such as, stealing a cookie, but what if the act in question was more severe… more intense so to say. What if one were to be blamed for a crime as serious as murder? Worst, what if the reason for conviction was based primarily on the color of an individual’s skin and an untrustworthy testimony. In order to inform his listeners of such injustice towards African-Americans within in the United States, in particular, Rubin Carter, Bob Dylan skillfully employs the rhetorical strategies of imagery, pathos, and metaphor in his popular song “Hurricane”. The song begins with a simple yet effective description of the murder in which a woman by the name of Patty cries out
To summarize the article “Racial Profiling is Morally Wrong and Based on False Assumptions”, by James A. Kowalski, he argues that racial profiling is by no means effective, or good. It solves no problems, and causes people to fear law enforcement. Racial profiling is when an individual is suspected of a crime by law enforcement because of their race, ethnicity, religion, or national origin. For example, “all blacks are gang members”. In addition to Kowalski’s arguments, he references the Zimmerman case from 2012 as an example of racial profiling gone wrong.
Minorities often receive a lower quality education that their white counterparts, live in environments not conducive to producing productive members of society, and are forced to endure unjust discrimination. The justice system has coined the phrase “innocent until proven guilty,” but a more accurate motto might be “Innocent unless not white”. There is no city that serves as a better example of how blacks are unfairly discriminated against that New York City. Since 2002, New York City has had a Stop-and-Frisk policy in place allowing police to stop any citizen on the street and search them for illegal contraband The justification for the policy is highly questionable, and the statistics on the policy prove that it has discriminatory motives. The Stop-and-Frisk street interrogations have proven to be wildly inefficient with “nearly nine out of 10” of the “more than 5 million” New Yorkers who have been stopped having been “completely innocent” (“Stop-and-Frisk” 1).