The impact of Lenin’s victory over a capitalist monarchy defines an important change in the way Sino-Vietnamese relations would occur, since the focus on nationalism would slowly convert to communism as the dominant ideology to resist western capitalism. The rise of the communist resistance Ho Chi Minh in the early 20th century defines the overarching influence of Chinese/Soviet communist policies, which he followed by building a military force on the northern border of China and Vietnam in the 1920s: “By late 1924, Nguyen Ai Quoc (Ho Chi Minh) was in southern China, building a new revolutionary organization meant to operate inside Indochina. These efforts culminated in 1930 with the establishment of the Vietnamese Communist Party” (Ward 45). In this historical perspective, it is imperative to understand the impact that the Soviet Union had on Chinese Communism, which had been steadily growing as a counter-ideology to the capitalist nationalism of Sun Yat-sen. These trends throughout the post-WWI era define the growing associations between China and the revolution forces of Ho Hi Minh that would eventually result in the expulsion of the Japanese and French colonies in Vietnam.
In social theory, constructivists emphasize the social construction of reality. The social world is not a given. The social world is a world of human consciousness: of thoughts and beliefs, of ideas and concepts, of languages and discourses. Four major types of ideas are: ideologies; normative beliefs; cause–effect beliefs; and policy prescriptions. Constructivist Alexander Wendt rejects the neorealist position of anarchy necessarily leading to self-help.
According to Seymour Lipset, leadership provides future leadership an example on how to steer the country. China, in its extensive history, has many powerful leaders. However, two are very important in modern China: Mao Zedong and Deng Xiaoping. Mao Zedong is a key figure in the rise of the Communist Party in China and its victory over the previous political party in power, the Kuomintang, during the Chinese Civil War. However, his long reign as the Chairman of China has a lasting effect in China on what type of leadership it needs.
Liberalism is the act of liberal perspectives being perpetuated. One of the reasons The Great Wall of China was built was for safety. Also, it reveals what China went through with war and finally, it is relevant to the Chinese society due to the Great Wall still being a part of society today. A sense of nationalism
Chiang Kai-shek and modernization Whenever someone uses the term “Modern China” today, one might immediately think of the rapidly developing China after the economic reform proposed by Deng Xiaoping in the late 1970s. In European, however, modernization had already begun by the early 20th century, and it brings up a question: Had the Chinese authority that ruled at that time tried to do anything to modernize China? From 1926 to 1928, the Kuomintnag(KMT), literally means the Nationalist Party, which mainly led my the generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, had launched the Northern Expedition and eventually reunified China. The success ended the chaotic warlord era and allowed the centralization of power. The reunification also brought China a relatively stable environment for modernization which lasted ten years.
Fourthly, developmentalism, is the central drive for the country for their relations in the China and outside (international). According to Chinese Dream developmentalism is homogeneous to Chinese government and rules. Lastly, revitalization as a meaning speaks about the creation of hard power. Hard power is the growing importance of the soft power. Joseph Nye tried to explain what is soft power ":the ability to shape the preferences of others through the attraction of one's values, culture and policies, as well as the active export of Chinese values is closely associated with China's hope for a more favorable international environment and its desire to expand its
Thus, the ideological spectacles of the historical investigator shape the presentation of ‘facts’. Weber’s idea of the progressive mechanization and demystification of society is in fact directly opposed to Marx’s view in which there is a progressive obfuscation and mystification of social relations which makes the continuance of the system possible in
While Morgenthau argued that states are bound to conduct their foreign policy in terms of national interest (Jackson, Sørensen, 2013: 81). Therefore, Neorealism differs from Classical realism mainly in its approach for studying the international politics as an integrated system which function in accordance to certain
1. The Notion of “Equaliberty” Etienne Balibar explains this term as a portmanteau term in order to show its non-uniformity. This term basically the combination of two terms which are equality and liberty. The main purpose of using this notion is to show that these two terms are the key concepts that determine the political field but not in Rancièrian sense on the contrary with the effects of material and environmental conditions. Balibar
Rather than focusing only on state’s selfishness and competitiveness, structural realists (neorealists) believe that states enter into alliances with other states (diplomacy) to regulate and keep a check on the power of other alliances and more powerful states. Although the school of structural realism (neorealism) is developed from the classical realist school, there are key differences between these two types of realism. According to Ferguson (2011) and the lectures and other materials of week 1-3, classical realists primarily focus on explaining the nature of man; that is, human nature is aggressive and human aggregates (states) are thus aggressive too. They argue that behaviors of states derive heavily from human nature, and self-centeredness and self-interestedness are presumed to be the fundamental principles of realism. In contrast to this, structural realists (neorealists)