Alfred Kinsey was an American Biologist, Journalist, Educator, Zoology, and Sexologist who in 1947 founded the Institute for Sex Research at Indiana University that is now known as the Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction. Kindsey published his first book, ‘Sexual Behavior in the Human Male’ in 1948 and another sequel called ‘Sexual Behavior in the Human Female’ in 1953, also best known as the “Kinsey Reports”. Kinsey’s work rapidly changed social and cultural values in the United States, also internationally.
The 1960s also saw the then-radical development of another field: sexology and gender studies. With the advent of second-wave feminism in the 1960s along with the foundation of sex research institutes and journals, most notably the Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction in the late 40s, the definition of sexuality began to broaden and its study became less conjectural and less taboo . Prior to this, sex research was generally limited to the niche interests of psychiatrists and physicians, sometimes dubbed “sexual radicals. ” As the search for a more holistic and objective view towards sex began to permeate academia, the forces of sex and architectural theory underwent interdisciplinary scholarly dialogue in the 80s and
Cornel West, a philosopher, made his view on heterosexism very clear in an interview with Vitka Eisen and Mary Kenyatta, in 1995. In the interview, West claimed that heterosexism has always been practiced and enforced throughout history for the sake of religion and consistency, and subsequently, the fight against heterosexism necessitates a great political courage.
Sexual perversions will have to be unnatural sexual activities, which requires a concept of sexuality. The concept of perversion should encompass the most obvious perversions, an example being foot fetishes. Finally, perversions will reflect unnatural psycho/ sexual preferences, not just simply unnatural practices (Nagel, 5). Nagel goes on to explain that perversion is not connected to reproduction, but about the psychological state of the agent and not physiological. Perversion is also not connected to the societal norms. There are lots of sexual acts of which society does or has disapproved (adultery) but are not considered perversions. He offers examples to the elucidate his position. Voyeurism, exhibitionism, sadism and masochism are, according to Nagel, incomplete forms of communication. Nagel also talks about homosexuality, and settles that using this quarrel one can hardly call homosexuality perverse, since two persons of the same sex can certainly have complete communication (Nagel, 16). Though in this way he emphasizes his prior declarations about fetishism, bestiality, and sex with more than one pair of partners. Conversely, Nagel makes no room for masturbation, regrettably not addressing it at all. Regrettably because masturbation is so normally called into question in the dialogue of what constitutes sexual perversion. Nagel’s
After the Second Great Awakening, the idea of change became popular and the idea of independence seeded itself into society. Reforms were developing, which supported ideas or unpopular opinions such as abolition of slavery, women’s rights, or equality. Literature also became a popular approach as a way to assert change into society. Many writers were challenging the idea of literature and instead using it as a way to spread their message even if it was not widely accepted by the public. An important and famous piece of literature is “Self Reliance” by Ralph Waldo Emerson in which he evokes the importance of conforming to unpopular opinions. Ralph Waldo Emerson became an influential
Sexuality is one of those feelings that you are born with. Different cultures and religions have their own definition of sexuality. It's not something that you choose, it's a natural physically, emotional, and sexual attraction to male, female, or even both. For centuries it is believe by some cultures that if you weren't heterosexual then you have a mental disease and considered abnormal. Foucault believed that power is persuasive, multi-faced, and is not already planned. It’s a cultural production that represents the appropriation of the human body and of its physiological capacities by an ideological discourse. Sex has no history but sexuality does. French Philosopher Michel Foucault thought that sexuality was, “a set of effects produced in bodies, behaviors, and social relations by a certain deployment.” Sexuality for a person can be narrowed down to what a person is attracted to, their desires, and pleasures. In the article, “Is There a History of Sexuality?” by David M. Halperin sexually defines itself as separate, sexual domain, within the larger field of human psychophysical nature. For some cultures it is considered natural and psychological but different people feel different ways about that unproven theory. Sexuality effects different people due to their cultures views on passion, libertinism, eroticism, love, affection, and desire. Athenians felt like that was when people were sexually attracted to the same
Edgar Allan Poe once said, “Words have no power to impress the mind without the exquisite horror of their reality.” Edgar Allan Poe is among many authors as one of the most influential writers of all time. Edgar Allan Poe had a unique writing style that no one else did. He did impact many people and still impacts many to this day. He was one to build on the idea of horror and expand the concept of it. Many of Poe’s works are still available today, and his poems are still some of the most famous around. Not only is Poe’s works some of the best anyone has ever seen, the message he leaves everyone with is astonishing. His tragic early life was the main cause of his affection for horror.
Michel Foucault was a French philosopher, philologist and social theorist. He made discourses on the relationship between power and knowledge and about how they are utilized as a form of social control through social establishments. This essay talks about Michel Foucault’s discourse on sexuality. He put forward his theory of the history of sexuality. He talked about how the experts began examining sexuality in a scientific manner in order to learn the “truth” of sex.
Nature versus Nurture is an age old debate in Psychology. Nature vs Nurture relates to an individuals behaviour and characteristics and whether they are inherited through their DNA and genes, which can be seen as an innate approach to the debate.This is because innatism believes that the mind is born with all knowledge.Nurture states our behaviour and characteristics are learned through our environment and experiences, This therefore can be seen as empiricist approach as empiricism states that we are born a blank slate and everything we know is learned through our senses. Reproductive behaviour looks at how patterns are established and formed to continue the survival of humanity. Reproductive behaviour can fall under either Nature or Nurture
Moral, religious and legal attitudes are definite interferences with sexual behavior as well as an ostensible insight of the medical and psychological aspects of homosexuality. This phenomenon is possibly much less destructive of social aspects of our society and culture than is commonly believed, since it is actually more prevalent than is generally acknowledged. Homosexuality is most likely a result of hormonal and undoubtedly social and psychological factors.
On the 28th of June, 1969, a police raid on the Stonewall inn, a mafia-owned gay bar in New York, became a turning point in the fight for LGBT rights when the bar’s patrons began violently protesting their mistreatment. While the police had a warrant to search the bar for the sale of alcohol without a liquor license, they were also motivated by morality laws which included many anti-gay restrictions. The Stonewall riots continued for several more nights, and gave rise to an extreme increase in the number of gay liberation organizations and gave the LGBT community a more powerful voice, with the protests coming to symbolize the beginning of the gay liberation movement.
Other readings have discussed the history of sexuality—A history of Latina/o Sexualities. Throughout history, women were supposed to be passive. Women were there to please the man and ofter were viewed as the inferior. Sex was viewed as something that was essential only for reproduction; it was only to be pleasurable during a marriage and through very strict guidelines set by the church. This is still an influential way which women are being treated today. Throughout the articles when women expressed their sexuality they were victims; it was seen as something only males have the agency to do.
Being in favor of homosexuality, John Corvino brings up several arguments and counter arguments as to why homosexual sex is deemed as unnatural in our society. Is it unnatural because majority of society chooses to portray it in such a way or is it unnatural for nature related reasons? John Corvino in this reading discussed both sides when viewing homosexual sex as “unnatural”.
Cooper, A. (n.d.) Changing gay male identities. New York City, NY: Routledge Taylor and Francis Group. This book presented the changes in sexual identity. It showed the relationship of these sexual identity changes with traditional society and modern culture. In today’s world, where technology grows with a fast pace, humans are ready to do everything what will satisfy their mental needs and physical ideals. This book talked about the role of religion in today’s world, conflicts in society, emotions and social movements and sociology and grace. This book is very useful in context of understanding and accepting changes in sexual identity, what is very often in Western Europe and North America. Also, Cooper explained how these changes are rarely accepted in Eastern Europe and Asia.
Kinsey’s continuum measures sexual orientation based off of experiences, affection, and desires ranging from being exclusively heterosexual to exclusively homosexual. Kinsey’s study allowed for the fluidity of sexual orientation to be measured and exist. I think hate crimes and homophobia stems from negative beliefs towards people regarding other’s preference. Hate crimes are the act of aggression and homophobia is bias against homosexuality. I think institutions along with other social structures impact people’s beliefs and influence these inequalities systemically.