2. Literature Review 2.1 Theoretical Background 2.1.1 The Earth and its Atmosphere In the early twentieth century, a young German scientist named Alfred Wegener, His theory was motivated by the observation that the continents, particularly South America and Africa, seemed to be pieces of a global jig-saw puzzle that had somehow been pulled apart (Asrat, 2006). He reasoned that all land masses were once connected in a gigantic supercontinent he named "Pangaea". The northern part of Pangea is commonly called Laurasia and the southern part Gondwanaland. A single supercontinent that broke apart to form the modern continents is called the theory of continental drift.
The Moon controls tides, which is 71% of the Earth 's surface. The origin of this object has been a question for many years. The most believed theory for how the Moon formed is called the Giant Impact Theory. This theory shows that a mars sized object came into Earth 's orbit, resulting in a collision. This collision caused a piece of Earth and debris to break off.
The fossil record provides clear evidence supporting evolution, it is an accurate way to look back at the past, and Darwin drew many ideas of evolution and natural selection from the work of paleontologists, (Campbell Et al 2008). Many fossils are found in sedimentary rocks formed from fine sands and mud that settles on the bottom of lakes and swamps, over time these layers accumulate and compress turning it into layers of rocks called strata. These strata can be used to identify time periods via carbon dating to determine how old they are. Why important? types of fossils There are four types of fossils: Mold fossils- this is an impression that is made within the substrate, usually a negative image of the organism.
Then, there was Alfred Russel Wallace, he had a major influence on Darwin theory. Wallace, did the same thing Darwin did, he went on a voyage but he went to different islands and he noticed the same thing Darwin noticed in other species but he could not exactly put a name on his findings, so he sent his work to Darwin. That is when Darwin came up with natural selection and he wrote his book and years later Wallace wrote a book called Darwinism. 2. Earth was formed 4.568 billion years ago and early earth consisted organic molecules; hydrogen compound, methane, water vapor, and ammonia.
The scientists who were involved with the panspermia hypothesis are Benoit de Maillet, Jons Jacob Berzelius, Lord Kelvin, (William Thompson) Francis Crick, Leslie Orgel, and Anaxagoras. The year that the hypothesis was created is 1743 by Benoit de Maillet. The claim of the panspermia hypothesis was that everything started out like seeds that fell from space and then falling into the ocean. The reasoning behind the panspermia hypothesis was that a meteorite blasted off from Mars about 15 million years ago that was found in Antarctica that supported the theory that life started out from
Another one was the sightings of UFO’s coming out from the ocean, which was explained to have happened, perhaps because the center of the Earth was populated by extraterrestrial beings, who from time to time emerge from the poles in spacecrafts, perhaps because in the 20th century Hohlwelttheorie was linked with the belief of aliens. Moreover, this theory has also been linked with conspiracies such as that the Nazi specially Hitler knew of an entrance to the interior world at the South Pole, and that Hitler and his colleagues and friends fled there at the end of WWII. In that same wavelength the popular science fiction story “A journey to the Centre of the Earth” by French novelist Jules Verne (1828-1905) has given the theory, its most lasting exposition, since the late 19th century, and in which he describes the discovery of a prehistoric world by explorers who go down a volcano only to find out this interior world, that had its own source of light, water, and flourishing
We come out of this world not out of it, which is quite similar to the leaves branching from a tree. Therefore, “As the ocean “waves”, the universe “peoples (13) .’” However, individuals hardly realize this let alone experience it. Unfortunately, “Even those who know it to be true in theory do not sense or feel it, but continue to be aware of themselves as isolated "egos" inside bags of skin (13).” Throughout The Book, it is constantly restated that we want to
Aside from this, he also proposed that the Earth rotated on its own axis, taking an entire day to complete a single revolution (Westman, 1998). When we compare and contrast the Copernican and Ptolemaic models of the solar system, we find that the Copernican model was much simpler and had greater explanatory value. It was a much better system for the following reasons. Firstly, the heliocentric model proposed by Copernicus was simpler than the geocentric one. There was still a need for epicycles to explain planetary motion as Copernicus postulated that planets moved in circular orbits
The Geocentric and Heliocentric theory have been a big part of the change in European beliefs as they presented their belief or discovery. Galileo Galilei and Nicolaus Copernicus are the scientists who have discovered or made their thoughts and beliefs on the geocentric and heliocentric theory and had people believe in these theories. In the way that Galileo Galilei and Nicolaus Copernicus with the theory of geocentric and heliocentric is how Galileo Galilei and Nicolaus Copernicus changed the European beliefs. The Catholic Church was a big part on the beliefs as well after they believed in the belief that Galilei made and then Galilei made a mistake and was sent to prison for it and he was sentenced to life, however, he was able to do it on
Second without it we would not have GPS on our phones and in our cars. Finally our understanding of the Big Bang and black holes would also be different. The research is incredible, because it is really difficult to understand and it has helped us a lot. This theory has helped us with almost everything, but mostly to understand time and space. Even a century later, this theory is still reshaping how scientists think as they search for the theory of the everything.