Rudyard kipling has been attacked for championing British imperialism and celebrated for satirizing it. In fact, he did both. Nowhere does he express his own ambivalence more strongly than in Kim, his rousing adventure novel of a young man of many allegiances. Kimball O 'Hara grows up an orphan in the walled city of Lahore, India. Deeply devoted to an old Tibetan lama but involved in a secret mission for the British, Kim struggles to weave the strands of his life into a single pattern.
Indian writers like Bankim Chandra Chatterjee (Bengali, 1838-1894) and others made use of this newly acquired concept of nationalism to attack colonial rule, and in the process created their own brand of nationalism, rooted in the native land. Bankim Chandra wrote many historical novels like Durgesh Nandini (1965), and Anand Math (1882), acquired a pan-Indian popularity and made nationalism and patriotism a part of dharma. This was a distinctive concept of universalism that was accepted by many as a reply to western colonialism. Revivalism and reformism were natural corollary of the newly emerging idea of nationalism. Rabindra Nath Tagore (Bengali, 1861-1942) said that the unity of India always be in the diversity.
When Benjamin Franklin’s Autobiography was published in the eighteenth century, it reflected Franklin’s uncommon and advanced mindset during this time, considering that during this time humans were hanged for doubting the Revelation. In his Autobiography Franklin expresses skepticism towards religion and explains why he does not commit himself to one particular faith. However, Franklin respects the freedom of religion and highly promotes moral and virtues behavior. Franklin discusses his reflection on religion and the distinction between organized religions and beliefs that are not bound to religious systems. He stresses that organized religion and sects are more focused on following specific rules and practices, than concentrating on really
Then, he asserts that the 9/11 events exacerbated an antipathy towards ‘Arab-Middle Eastern-Muslim’ Other and created a new form of racism due to cultural differences in the post-Cold War reality. He strongly advocates that this newly promoted idea of “cultural racism” is nothing more than new political suasion to hold to inherent power and dominance by the empire over the Muslim Other (Semati, p. 257). This essay will describe and discuss the following premise: How can we understand political undertone in the concept of cultural racism and specifically how it relates to Islamophobia and the idea of “brown” as a racial
Postcolonial literature addresses the problems and consequences of the decolonization of a country and of a nation, especially the political and cultural independence of formerly oppressed colonized people. In his essay discussing the nature and boundaries of postcolonialism, Simon During argues for a more inclusive definition, calling it “the need, in nations, or groups which have been victims of imperialism to achieve an identity uncontaminated by universalist or
This thesis specially deals with the question “how does deconstruction make a space to let “absurdism” come into the prison-house of text? In Franz Kafka the Trial (1925) Kafka’s language and techniques has reformulated the relationship between deconstruction and absurdism and changed the manner in which they are related through his novel The Trial. According to Derrida, literature stands on the edge of everything, almost beyond everything, including itself. (Derrida’s, Act of Literature, ed. by Derek Attridge (New York: Routledge, 1992), p.47.
British colonialism has many impacts on the colonized people in the island of Trinidad; this is seen throughout the novel in the actions of the protagonist. Mr.Biswas is influenced by the British culture; he neglects his Hindu origin and adopts the values of the British colonizers. The imitation of the British colonizes leads Mr.Biswas to endure a lot of suffering during his life because he is trapped between two cultures. He tends to follow the English education instead of the Hindu one, he reads a lot of English poetry and from his school he got Bell's Standard Elocutionist which he often reads. On the other hand, he does not read what the pundit Jairum recommended (Ramayana); he does not follow what the Jarium aims to teach him because he ignores the traditional Hindu side by which he is bound with the blood that runs through his veins.
Therefore, the injustices and inequalities of our world today are clearly communicated and observed through Andy Mulligan’s novel. In Andy Mulligan’s novel Trash, he has made a firm statement about the inequalities and injustices in the world today. One example of this is seen throughout the theme Wealth, which is explored frequently throughout his novel. The quotes “... he’d (Zapanta) built himself a palace, for the king he thought he was. (pg.
As argued by Homi K. Bhabha in The Location of the Culture that India by turns appalled and fascinated the Britishers hence surfacing their ambivalent and hybrid identities, it is found that a few colonial British-Indian poets kept jostling between their emotional involvement with India and their ideological commitments to the British Empire. John Leyden’s “Ode to an Indian Gold Coin” presents that he lived in a constant contradiction between British imperialism and his yearning for India. Rudyard Kipling, popularly known as “the bard of Empire” (Sullivan 9), though longed for England at times but he felt at home in India or no where else. This ambivalence is pertinent in some of his poems such as “In Springtime,” “In Partibus” and “The Ballad of East and West” e.g. in “The Ballad of East and West,” he begins by stating “Oh, East is East, and West is West, and never the twain shall meet,/ Till Earth and Sky stand presently at God’s great Judgement seat;” but then immediately adds “But there is neither East nor West, Border, nor Breed, nor Birth,/ When two strong men stand face to face, though they come from the ends of the earth!”
He is unhappy about the cultural and spiritual life of Trinidad, he feels disgruntle from India and in England. In the interview with Roland Bryden in 1973, Naipaul remarked, “all my works are really one I am really writing one big book. I come to the conclusion that, considering the nature of the society I came