This also relates to the experiment performed above because it also affects how fast the rate of reaction is. Like how the temperature affected how long it took for the tablet to react to the water, if there is only one drop water used to dissolve the whole tablet, the time it takes for the whole tablet to react to the water and start to dissolve will be
TLC was used to identify the actual unknown product as well as other products/reactants present in the filtered solution. The procedure was conducted by placing a TLC plate in a developing chamber that is filled with a small amount of solvent. The solvent cannot be too polar because it will cause spotted compounds on the TLC plate to rise up too fast, while a very non-polar solvent will not allow the spots to move. The polarity of the spots also determines how far it moves on the plate; non-polar spots are higher than polar ones. After spots on the TLC form, the Rf values are calculated and used to analyze the similarity of the compounds.
You must first test the pH level of the amylase and starch solution using pH test strips, so that the experiment may be fair m. Then measure 3cm3 of amylase solution using the measuring cylinder, the pour it into the test tubes labeled A1-A5 n. Do the same for the starch solution but pour into the test tubes labeled S1-S5 o. Put test tubes A1 and S1 into the beaker labeled “cold water” p. Put test tubes A2 and S2 into the beaker labeled “normal water” q. Put test tubes A3 and S3 into the beaker labeled “warm water” r. Put test tubes A4 and S4 into the beaker labeled “very warm water” s. Put test tubes A5 and S5 into the beaker labeled “hot water” t. Mix the amylase solution with the starch solution when both are at the same temperature in each beakers (pour the amylase solution into the starch solution) u. Quickly add 3 drops of iodine solution into all 5 mixed amylase and starch solutions, while starting the stopwatch for each (should be 5 separate
Substrate concentration basically means the amount used for the substrate. The substrate in our experiment was 0.1% hydrogen peroxide. The 0.1% is the concentration amount. Just like temperature and pH, substrate concentration can speed the reaction only up to a certain limit. When we mixed pH 3 enzyme tube with substrate tube, we used 0.3 mL of hydrogen peroxide, but if we were to increase the amount, then the experiment would have been faster.
An error that occurred was the concentration of the solvent. Since there were two different dilution of the solution, the amount of water used was different, causing a different concentration and producing a different result. The amount of water used should be measured beforehand to reduce the random error and increase the precision of the results. A systematic error may have been the Bunsen burner being on safety flame instead of a blue flame. The long exposure to the low heat evaporated the water, thus increasing the concentration of Sodium Thiosulfate.
It states that changes in the temperature, pressure, volume, or concentration of a system will result in predictable and opposing changes in the system in order to achieve a new equilibrium state. Le Chatelier's principle can be used in practice to understand reaction conditions that will favor increased product formation. This idea was discovered and formulated independently by Henri Louis Le Chatelier and Karl Ferdinand Braun Changes in Concentration According to Le Chatelier's principle, adding additional reactant to a system will shift the equilibrium to the right, towards the side of the products. By the same logic, reducing the concentration of any product will also shift equilibrium to the right. The converse is also true.
Enthalpy of neutralization The purpose of this experiment is to determine the enthalpy change for the reaction between aqueous sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and aqueous hydrochloric acid (HCl). Introduction A neutralization reaction is a chemical reaction where a base and an acid react with each other. The products will always be water and a salt. The balanced reaction equation for this experiment is the reaction below (Enthalpy of neutralization, 2018). 〖NaOH〗_((aq))+〖HCl〗_((aq))→〖NaCl〗_((aq))+H_2 O_((l)) In aqueous solutions the substances that are involved will experience dissociation, which changes the ionization state of the substances (Neutralization, 2018).
Since the extraction temperature of acetic acid extraction prior to terephthalic acid production are desired at T = 313.2 K and atmospheric pressure. The temperature has been carried out since the aqueous solution that fed to extractor column is originally coming from the top product of distillation column in the upstream process, also keeping the temperature at 313.2 K to avoid the crystallization of acetic acid during the process. Therefore, the experimental liquid-liquid equilibrium data for the quaternary system involving methyl acetate + p-xylene + water + acetic acid at a desired temperature and pressure were performed, as shown in Table 2. The data given in Table 2 were shown as mass fraction. The compositions of the feed mixtures for
Throughout the experiment, there was a struggle to keep the heat stable which led to inaccurate data. Additionally, while changing the receiver from cyclohexane to toluene there was a loss of distillate which also led to the errors observed in the data. Furthermore, if more data were collected for each compound it would be a better representation of the experiment's results. If these errors were avoided, then the experiment would be more efficient in distilling the two compounds from each other and the plateau would be as sharp as figure 6 in the lab
As mentioned in the hypothesis, the prediction is that as the temperature increases towards the optimal, the rate of respiration will increase. As the temperature exceeds the optimal, the rate of respiration will decrease. The temperature of the environment can be varied by placing the respiration chamber under a temperature-controlled water bath/cooling bath. The temperatures that will be used in this experiment will range from 0ºC to 50ºC in 10ºC increments. Digital thermometer will be used to measure the temperature of air.