INTRODUCTION: Arginase is an enzyme- enzymes are biological catalyst which drives a reaction at the speed of life. Arginase is a hydrolase, hydrolases catalyze hydrolysis reactions, this is determined via the E.C number (Nelson and Cox 2008). Arginase has the EC number is 18.104.22.168 (Schomburg 2015). The enzyme ‘commission number’ is the arithmetical classification that is used for enzymes which indicates the chemical reaction they catalyze. EC 3 are hydrolases, which forms two products from the substrate via hydrolysis.
The first step is where the substrate enters the active site on the enzyme. It is held there by hydrophobic interactions between the exposed non-polar groups of the enzyme residues and the side chain of the substrate. The second step is where the hydroxyl group on Serine 195, aided by the histidine-serine hydrogen bonding, preforms its nucleophilic attack on the carbonyl carbon of an aromatic amino acid. While this happens, it also transfers the hydroxyl hydrogen to the histidine nitrogen. The nucleophilic attack pushes the carbonyl electrons onto the carbonyl oxygen, which forms a short-lived intermediate.
In this experiment, the dark blue colour is visible because of the helical amylose and amylopectin reacting with iodine (Travers et al., 2002). The starch-iodide complex forms because of the transfer of charge between the starch and iodide ion and results in spacing between the energy levels. This allows the complex to absorb light at different wavelengths resulting in a dark blue colour (Travers et al., 2002). A blue colour would indicate a positive test while a yellow colour would show a negative test. The Benedict’s test is useful for reducing sugars.
This identified the product as luminol. 7. Discussion and Conclusion Carboxyl groups, which are made of a carbonyl group and a hydroxyl group, produce carboxylic acids when bonded to hydrogens, alkyls, or aryls. Replacing the hydroxyl group with a different heteroatom substituent will produce a carboxylic derivative, which include amides, anhydrides, esters, and nitriles. The polarity of the acyl carbon atom is produced by the substituent and the electronegativity of the C-O double bond.
The molecules that an enzyme works with are called substrates. The substrates bind to a region on the enzyme called the active site. The active site is precisely shaped to hold specific substrates. Beta-galactosidase is one of the three genes in the lac operon. A lac operon is an operon required for the digestion of lactose in bacteria cells.
This method has been specially valuable for the separation of closely related amino acids. The mixture is dissolved in a fluid called mobile phase , which carries it through the structure holding another material called the stationary phase . The various amino acids travel at different speed , causing them to separate based on its R group . Amino acid Amino acid play central roles as building blocks of proteins and as intermediates in metabolisms . The 20 amino acids are found within proteins convey a vast array of chemical versatility (The Biology Project.2000).All amino acids found in proteins have a basic structure , different only in the structure of the R group or the side chain(Figure).
This agar comprise of dextrose, lactose and sucrose, which acts as the carbohydrates sources. The medium osmotic balance is maintain by Sodium chloride The fermentation of the carbohydrate lead to acid production of yellow colour agar, detected by the pH indicator in the media, phenol red. Detection of hydrogen sulfide is through the indicator Ferric Ammonium citrate. A black colour will be seen in the medium from the hydrogen sulfide production from thiosuplhate due to FeS production. ,
One purpose of a Wittig reaction is the formation of alkenes from aldehydes or ketones employing a carbo-phosphorous ylide, which is stabilized vie resonance to allow for the carbon bonded to phosphorus to be deprotonate from by a base (Ketcha, 142). The resonating ylide will react with the electrophilic carbonyl carbon of its aromatic aldehyde to produce a betaine intermediate, or a crystalized 4
Lab Report -- Relationship on Enzyme activity and substrate concentration Research Question: Is the more concentrated the substrate of hydrogen peroxide is, the shorter the time taken for the paper disc to rise from the bottom of the beaker? Aim: The opposite of hull hypothesis Background Information: This experiment aimed to investigate on the relationship of the substrate concentration and enzyme activity. Enzymes are proteins produced by a cell that acts as catalysts to increase the rate of a specific chemical reaction without changing the reaction itself. Under some conditions, substrate will bind to the active site of an enzyme and form an enzyme-substrate complex. The enzyme would fasten the chemical reaction and the substrate will