The first Ecumenical Council: A dispute over the nature of Christ had started at the time of Constantine and had become critical. The bishop of Alexandria considered God and Christ to be same while Arius did not agree, arguing that Christ and God are not the same substance. Common man became involved in the issue making the situation more critical and finally fights broke out on the streets and issue demanded attention. It was this point of time when Constantine called the first ever ecumenical council that called bishops from all over the World to end the dispute through debates. The council took place at Nicaea and declared Nicene Christianity to be authentic and orthodox in 325 AD.
After all, the Christians were the ones who were leading the crusades and they were the ones who were the biggest advocates of them. The Pope was usually in charge of sanctioning the missions and it was clear that the papacy was on board with the missions. Their main mission was to reclaim the Holy Lands from the Muslim people who had invaded it. In Robert the Monk, Pope Urban II’s Call to the 1st Crusade, the Pope is talking to a council that was convened in the city of Clermont and he is quoted saying “We wish you to know what a serious matter has led us to your country, for it is the imminent peril threatening you and all the faithful that has brought us hither. From the confines of
The Fifth & Sixth Crusade With the failure of the Fourth Crusade, the Fifth Crusade and Sixth Crusades were targeted at fighting all of those seen as enemies of the Christian but the final goal of the Church was still to recapture Jerusalem. The Fifth Crusade was sanctioned by Pope Innocent III, who called for all of Christendom to join a new crusade to reclaim Jerusalem, which was still controlled by the Muslims. The Pope believed that this crusade might be more successful if it was planned and controlled by the Church. not by the kings. The first European leader to agree to lead the Fifth Crusade was King Andrew II of Hungary, who embarked on this crusade in 1217.
The trip held much more value than just a success over opposing religion Islam; it also gave an immense chance for personal gain. In 1095, Pope Urban the II received an urgent message from the Byzantine Emperor asking for aid in the west. He asked Urban to send the Christian people to claim back the land they believed was rightfully theirs from the Turks (Muslims). Pope Urban said that he had received a message from God to tell the Christians that they needed to go on a crusade. He told them
To clarify, the crusades were military expeditions to avoid the Ottoman Empire expansion. From the viewpoint of the Christians, the Muslims were enemies of Christ and his church. It was the crusader’s task to defeat and defend against them. Some of the crusades were successful and gained Christian states like Palestine and Syria. The Islamic states were growing rapidly and those gains reversed.
They were jealous that they didn’t occupy Jerusalem, and they thought that Jerusalem was rightfully theirs. So, as a result, Pope Urban II called on the people of Western Europe to take arms and march to the land of the Seljuk Muslims to claim Jerusalem as their own. Despite the friendly relations, jealousy encouraged the Christian Europeans to start the Crusades. The
By 434, the controversy with Nestorianism had been settled with a definition of union that clarified the orthodox doctrine. This definition teaches two natures in Christ. Nevertheless, because Cyril preached "one incarnate nature", the Alexandrians, led by their bishop Dioscorus (he succeeded Cyril in 444), affirmed that the two natures of Christ became one nature after the Incarnation. This was called Eutychianism, after the monk Eutyches of Constantinople, who in 448 complained to Pope St. Leo that Nestorianism had been revived, because he mistook the assertion of two natures for the Nestorian heresy. The followers of Eutyches later became known as Monophysites, since they asserted that Christ had one nature.
The second reason why Europe was in a Dark Age is because of the crusades. For example, The emperor from the Byzantine empire asked Pope Urban from the Holy Roman Empire. The Pope answered and accepted the emperor cry for help. After the Pope had his people help the emperor of Byzantine he ordered his people to take over Jerusalem because he
Racism is not a new concept in the Americas, it was laid out in the very foundation of the country. The authors cook, Black and Poole theorize that the origin for Hispanic racism origins is based on the Spanish middle ages concept of “Limpieza de Sangre” in which believe that the basis of a good purity a person is would be based on the purity of his catholic bloodlines. It started at the liberation of the Iberian Peninsula from the Muslim countries. Despite freedom prejudice about the Muslim and Jewish communities could be visibly seen as the isle dictated an edict that they must convert to Christianity or be banished from the isle. This caused any converts in the fifteen hundreds, although this was not viewed as a throw treatment of converts
Polycarp, a disciple of John, who had also known several of the original Apostles, strongly resisted the introduction of Easter in the place of Passover. He visited Rome in 154 A.D. to discuss the growing heated controversy with Anicetus, the Roman bishop. The controversy concerning Passover continued among Christian leaders until the matter was decided at the Council of Nicaea in A.D. 325, during the reign of Emperor Constantine. The bishops effectively ended the observance of Passover among Christians, replacing it with a pagan Roman holiday, Easter. But the question remains, what does the Bible say we are to do?