ABSTRACT The experiment aims to find the concentration of acetic acid in the vinegar sample by titrating it to a standardized NaOH solution, a base solution. A standardized 0.100 M NaOH solution was prepared from an available concentration of NaOH specifically a 1.00 M NaOH. The volume of the standardized solution (titrant) used which is 0.100 L was calculated using the M 1 V 1 = M 2 V 2 relationship. It was then gradually added to the vinegar solution until the acid-base reaction was completely neutralized. To regulate the reaction, phenolphthalein, an acid-base indicator, was added beforehand to the vinegar (analyte).
The crude tetraphenylnaphthalene in a 25-ml Erlenmeyer flask and dissolved in boiling isopropyl alcohol (12 ml). The solution was cooled to room temperature and further cooled in an ice bath for 30 minutes. Crystallization of colorless crystals occurred. The product was collect in a Hirsch funnel and washed with isopropyl alcohol. The solid was left to dry over the weekend.
The compound’s empirical formula was determined to be FeK3(C2O4)3•3H2O. With the molecular formula and the balanced equation for the synthesis of potassium trioxalatoferrate (III) trihydrate, stoichiometry revealed potassium oxalate monohydrate was the limiting reactant. The theoretical yield of 6 grams of potassium oxalate monohydrate was
In the sodium iodide test, the alkyl halide is added to sodium iodide in acetone. In this test, primary halides precipitate the fastest while secondary halides need to be heated in order for a reaction to occur. Comparison of the rates of precipitation of the obtained product to standard 1° and 2° bromide solutions will show whether the product is a primary or secondary
Power level optimization done on level 70, 80, 90 and 100. As time optimization of extraction is done at 15, 16, 17 and 18 minutes. Characterization of Alginate Characterization of sodium alginate was conducted to determine the physical and chemical properties of sodium alginate extraction results. Analysis of Water Content Analysis of water content is done by gravimetric methods AOAC (1990), by drying the sample at 105 oC alginate. The water content is determined based on the dry weight alginate that is a percentage of the dry weight of the initial weight.
Purpose: The purpose of this lab is to titrate an unknown solid acid (KH2PO4) with a standardized sodium hydroxide solution. After recording and plotting the data, the acid’s equivalence point will be recorded once the color changes. Using the equivalence point, the halfway point will be calculated, which is used to determine the acid’s equilibrium constant. The acid’s calculated equilibrium constant will be compared with the acid’s established pKa value. Eventually using the NaOH and the acid’s consumed moles, the equivalent mass will be determined.
The reaction absorbance of prepared mixture absorbance was measured at 760 nm in a spectrophotometer (Jenway UK). The total concentration of phenolic compounds in the extract was determined expressed as microgram of pyrocatechol equivalent (PE) per milligram of driedy extract. The total phenolics compoundscontent was determined as the pyrocatechol equivalent using an equation obtained from a standard pyrocatechol graph (y = 0.0057 x total phenols [μg PE/mg of dry extracts] - 0.1646,
Modeling on amount of alcohol in blood stream Contents: Page no. Communication Rationale Introduction Mathematical Presentation Derivation, graph and formulae Personal engagement Reflection Substantial evidence Use of mathematics Communication Rationale: One day I was reading a daily newspaper where I found an editorial on the topic of amount of drug in the blood stream. So I kept on thinking and at a result I realised to explore my internal assessment on this topic. I was very much curious about to know the amount of alcohol consumed by the people having different weight and physical capacity/strength. Therefore I am planning to explore in this internal
All diisocyanate are liquids or solids in the nature and highly reactive, it undergo reaction across the double bond C=N of the –NCO group. The reactivity of the isocyanates are mainly depends on the electron density of the central carbon atom of the isocyanate, the low electron density of central carbon atom contains compounds are highly reactive means the aromatic diisocyanates are highly reactive than aliphatic because of resonance structures. Therefore, the electrophilic nature of the aromatic diisocyanates can alter through different substituents on aromatic ring like electron withdrawing or donating groups. The reactivity of diisocyanates plays important role to synthesis of polyurethanes because the possibility to form dimers, trimmers and higher oligomers and also possible to form polymers. In addition, the number of cross-linking reactions may be take place, mainly depends on the reaction conditions such as temperature, catalysts, the structure of the alcohols, amines and isocyanates.
It is related to the ionic content of the sample which is in turn a function of dissolved solids concentration, the relevance of easily performed conductivity measurements is apparent. In itself conductivity is an invaluable indicator of the range into which hardness and alkalinity values are likely to fall, and also of the order of the dissolved solids content of the water. While a certain proportion of the dissolved solids (for example, those which are of vegetable origin) will not be ionized and hence will not be reflected in the conductivity figures (Crittenden et al., 2012; Gorde & Jadhav,