Renal Failure

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The kidneys are vital organs for maintaining a stable internal environment .The kidneys have many functions, including regulating the acid–base and fluid–electrolyte balances of the body by filtering blood, selectively reabsorbing water and electrolytes, and excreting urine. In addition, the kidneys excrete metabolic waste products, including urea, creatinine, and uric acid, as well as foreign chemicals. Apart from these regulatory and excretory functions, the kidneys have a vital endocrine function, secreting renin, the active form of vitamin D, and erythropoietin. These hormones are important in maintaining blood pressure, calcium metabolism, and the synthesis of erythrocytes.

Renal failure is a process that expresses a loss
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In HD, an extra-corporal device is used, whereas in PD the peritoneal membrane acts as a filter. TX patients receive their allograft from living or cadaveric donors. To prevent allograft rejection, immunosuppressant therapy is required including the use of prednisolone, cyclosporine or tacrolimus, which could also affect the oral health.

End stage renal disease (ESRD) encompasses a wide range of metabolic disorders affecting every system of the body leading to a very immunocompromised situation. More than a million people worldwide have their lives extended through the development of renal replacement therapy. In India, a conservative estimate of ESRD burden, based on a population of 1.1 billion is that 1,650,000-2,200,000 people develop ESRD annually and the number of patients with chronic kidney disease, stage 5 (CKD), undergoing hemodialysis treatment (HT) has been increasing at a rate of 6.3% a
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Although OC is a superficial oral infectious lesion that is clinically detectable, it should be taken seriously due to its high potential to develop into a systemic infection in immune-compromised patients. Oral presentations of candidiasis vary from the large white plaques of pseudomembraneous candidiasis on the tongue and buccal mucosa to the palatal erythematous lesions of chronic atrophic candidiasis, and to angular cheilitis on the labial commissures .The primary etiological agent of oral candidiasis is the yeast C. albicans; however, other species that cause disease less commonly include C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C parapsilosis, C. guilliermondii, and C. dubliniensis
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