Nietzsche wrote about some moralists and posits that they just accept their cultures’ morality and serve as its shield bearers rather than as rigorous critics. Nietzsche here specifies that his task is not simply to expose the psychological and historical contingencies that make for different moralities, but to question moralities for their objective functional value. According to Nietzsche, that a particular morality comes from an erroneous, mythical tradition does not by itself tell us that, that morality is worthless just because it has traditionally been falsely conceived. Similarly, the psychological ways that we form moral concepts does not invalidate their claims to objective value. Neither does showing the historical and cultural processes
Nietzsche believed that philosophy should be about jumping from one extreme to another extreme and that it should make you angry and ask questions. He identified true morality as there being a right and a wrong, and the right and wrong actions are what allow you to succeed in life. Morality as an anti-nature is people telling you what you shouldn't
It does not condemn morality, but rather reconsiders western morality. Nietzsche’s merely questions the value of responsibility attributes to life. Behind the curtain of abstract concepts lies a world unrestricted by abstract concepts and symbols. Concepts are once again emphasised as man-made constructs. Nietzsche states that concepts, however, are “never the objective grasp of some essence” (Raffoul, 2010, p. 83) and it is not some inherited transcendental knowledge.
Not only that, he thought that the way this term was exploited in society corrupted its meaning. Nietzsche claims that the idea of punishment relies heavily on how the agent has free will and chose to go against social conduct, which implies that the notion of free will was created as a ploy in order to create and foster guilt. Furthermore, he believes that a subject who acts under his or her supposed free will, and thus is responsible for some crime, is not really free as this subject or agent is restrained by social regulations. In other words, Nietzsche found that free will is a contrivance so that we are able to judge people guilty. Nonetheless, he argues that we cannot ultimately assign accountability because we are not free.
For example, Kant upholds the notion of a universal, a priori law. Instead, Nietzsche rejects the existence of structures that objectively determine such concepts, claiming them to be mere projections of a week will. As such, in ‘Beyond Good and Evil’, he contends: ‘there are no moral phenomena at all, only moral
Altruism is when one person 's actions risks or cost themselves something to promote someone else 's welfare. In the past, some researchers have conducted experiments with the intention to prove the Altruism theory, and what they found went against what most people believed to be true. These researchers found that most people 's first impulse was to cooperate and help others in need instead of wanting to be competitive. The researchers were even able to come to the conclusion that not only humans were capable of this, but non-human primates were able to display acts that further prove the experimental process in regard to
There is no reason we should sacrifice ourselves to save a dying child. Our instincts tell us to keep ourselves alive, that we are important. Thus, altruism is a beautiful conquering of our savage animal instincts. Ayn Rand disagrees. In her book, Anthem, the protagonist, Equality 7-2521, heroically conquers the evil Collectivist ideas by discovering the idea behind the word, “Ego.” She argues against brotherhood and altruism through her loveless, beautiless society.
This article takes into account Friedrich Nietzsche 's philosophy, in particular the notions of Slave Morality and Master Morality, in order to analyze the major characters of Death of a Salesman (1998) especially its tragic protagonist Willy Loman. Therefore, firstly Nietzsche’s related concepts will be explained and then the play will be studied based on those concepts. In this study understanding master morality, slave morality and their differences as well as the idea of ‘will to power’ is essential to analyze the characters based on Nietzsche’s philosophy. This paper considers Willy Loman as an actual low man who does not know himself and cannot bear changes while his son, Biff, seeks to create and set his own values. He ferociously shows
The criterion, proposed by Nietzsche, how to value the advantages and disadvantages of history for life is the strength of individual, nation or culture. Healthy life instinct suggest when to think historically, when—unhistorically, so to say, when to remember, when to forget. For Nietzsche, forgetfulness is not only a passive disposition, but an active ability, the strength to suppress and dismiss, refined art that masters the past. What does Nietzsche mean by the strength of life? In The Twilight of the Idols, he explicitly says that “every individual may be scrutinized to see whether he represents the ascending or the descending line of life” (ibid).
Introduction Altruism being the selfless concern for welfare of other people which involves doing something simply out of a desire to help, not merely because of feeling obligated to out of one’s duty, loyalty or religious traditions. “Altruism is behavior motivated by concern for others or by internalized values, goals, and self-rewards rather than by the expectation of concrete or social rewards, or the desire to avoid punishment or sanctions,” Eisenberg et al. (1999). Altruism is a desire within one organism as an end state goal (Batson, 1983). Howard and Piliavin (2000) viewed altruism as to provide benefits to its recipients in exchange of no benefits and even of incurring some cost to the actor.