Lou Gehrig's Disease (ALS) Each year about 5,000 people are diagnosed with the deadly disease called Lou Gehrig's disease or ALS. ALS stands for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Yet one person has managed to survive for more than forty years with ALS. It is a disease that currently has no cure. ALS is a incurable disease that affects millions of people every year.
Alzheimer’s disease is named after Dr. Alois Alzheimer. Dr. Alzheimer was the first person to identify and describe this disease. Alzheimer’s disease is a brain disorder that gradually degrades the way the brain functions. Due to its progressive nature, as time passes more symptoms appear and the symptoms increasingly get more severe. Alzheimer’s disease destroys the individual’s memory and ability to think/process information.
To start, we must understand what is Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer is named after Dr. Alois Alzheimer. Alois Alzheimer was born on June 14, 1864 in Germany. At the beginning of 1906, Dr. Alzheimer noticed some changes in the brain tissue of a woman who died of a mental illness. The symptoms of this woman were, language problems, memory loss and sometimes unpredictable behavior.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a degenerative neuromuscular disorder that affects the motor neurons of the spinal cord and brain. Due to degeneration or destruction of the motor neurons, muscles throughout the body begin to become weak and waste away to the point that an individual has no muscle movement. In most cases, due to having muscle strength, a patient with ALS will succumb to their disease because of respiratory failure or dehydration and malnutrition. It is a progressive disease with a prognosis of 3 to 5 years after initial diagnosis. There is no cure for the disease as of now.
RAIN STIMULATION BY DIRECT CURRENT AND MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS 1. Introduction Multiple sclerosis is a chronic, progressive (1), idiopathic inflammatory disease (2), which is presumed to be resulting from demyelination of axons and subsequent axonal deterioration in scattered areas of central nervous system(CNS) (3)(4). The progression of MS is highly unpredictable and is characterized at the outset by the episodes of reversible neurological deficits without following any regular pattern, often followed by gradual neurological degradation over time. (5) In the United States, 250,000 to 350,000 patients have been reported to have MS (6), and 50% of patients are presumed to need assistance in walking within 15 years after the MS onset. (7) Despite
Hand weakness is also another sign of ALS, along with trouble swallowing and muscle cramps in the shoulders and tongue. After time, ALS affects the ability to control the muscles needed to move, speak, eat, and breath. As known to researchers today, there are a few different forms of ALS. One type of this disease is called progressive bulbar palsy. Bulbar attacks the bulb shaped part of the brain stem first affecting the motor neurons needed for chewing, swallowing, speaking, and other facial muscles.
Rang et al (2) state that the main biochemical theory is the monoamine theory with a functional deficit of the monoamine neurotransmitters noradrenaline, serotonin and dopamine causing depression. This theory came about from the observation that drugs which affected the monoamines in the brain led to either the onset or alleviation of symptoms of depression. There are, however, some problems with this theory. One such problem is that although antidepressants alter the levels of the neurotransmitters immediately, clinical effects take weeks to appear. Also, antidepressants do not work for everyone.
Alzheimer's is described as a type of dementia that causes problems with memory, thinking and behavior. Victims lose the whole essence of who they are and slowly deteriorate while remaining powerless. Tragically more than 5.3 million people fall victim to Alzheimer's disease and it is the 6th leading cause of death in the United States (alz.org). Yet, it still cannot be cured, slowed, or prevented. The disease is often seen as a result of old age and not taken seriously.
Within this article, the author, Todd Nelson, describes the effects of ageism on older adults. Ageism is a term coined by Robert Butler in 1969, and it describes the type of prejudice experienced by senior citizens. Specifically, Nelson discusses three areas; the Influence of Ageism on Cognition, Age Stereotypes and Physical Health, and Age Stereotypes and Longevity. Nelson examined the effects of ageism on cognition through three perspectives. First, he found that when older adults were primed with negative age stereotypes, they performed poorly on memory tests.
These nephrons filter out and remove waste products and extra fluid from the blood and discharge them through urine (Lewis ). If a nephron gets damaged it is not able to function anymore. Kidneys are equipped to adapt to the loss of nephron mass. It is until 25% of renal function is declined and the number of nonfunctioning nephrons is greater than functioning nephrons that adaptive renal reserves are exhausted and symptomatic changes are apparent (Zerwek. Symptomatic changes that can be seen in CKD patients are increased levels of creatinine, urea, and potassium and alterations in salt and water balance.