In previous years, there have been numerous different advances to increase the effectiveness in computer software and data transmission to increase the quality of information about the ocean floor. One of these instruments is called the “Ground-Penetrating Radar.” This instrument uses radio waves to map the internal structure of the seafloor. These radio waves travel to the ocean floor, and bounce back letting the software know what the internal structure and geography of the ocean floor looks like. Prior to this instrument, it was very difficult to figure out the internal structure of the ocean floor. The SASW, otherwise known as the Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves, is an instrument that measures the “soil deposits and stiffness characteristics on the ocean floor.” These are especially useful for depicting sand deposits that previously, were hard to depict (“Technology and Tools”).
2.2.8 Pressure Sensor A pressure sensor also known as pressure transducer is used to measure pressure typically of gases or liquids. It converts pressure into an analog electrical signal such as a voltage output or current output which can easily be measured. Pressure sensors either convert the pressure into mechanical movement or into an electrical output. Complete gauges not only sense the pressure but indicate them on a dial or scale. Mechanical movement is produced with the following elements.
LITERATURE REVIEW In this project has two variables to control the process. There are vibration and green composite structure. Reading previous research and some journal have been done to have the knowledge and guidelines in order to commence this project. 1.1 Vibration Is a measurement of periodic or random process of an oscillations occur about to an equilibrium point. Vibration can be desirable and undesirable (Chakravorty et al., 1998).
In seismic data, depth is normally measured in two-way travel time in milliseconds or seconds. This is the time the sound waves use from it leaves the source until it hits the reflector and returns to the receiver. With the increase in depth, the frequency of the signal will decrease while the velocity and wavelength will increase. This means that with an increase in depth the seismic resolution gets poorer. The high frequencies are reflected from shallow reflectors, while the low frequencies reach further down.
These structural systems need intense analysis approach to assure the safety of build structure. Seismic Analysis and Simulation There are end number of tools out there that enables engineers to leverage a 3D model for seismic analysis and simulation. Engineers can simulate the structure through structural phases such as Loading, inclusive of seismic event by methods such as applied element method, which can trace structural collapse behavior through different cycles of loading, reinforcement yielding and proliferation in brittle materials. Engineers can use this approach beyond building structures, reaching out to infrastructure facilities as well. For deducing distribution of seismic-based shear force on the height of regular, multistory building, Equivalent lateral force method can be taken into consideration by
COMPARITIVE STUDY OF RESPONSE OF MULTI STOREY BUILDINGS SUBJECTED TO EARTHQUAKE FORCES WITH AND WITHOUT DAMPERS D.V.BANGARA RAJU1, CHANDAN KUMAR.PATNAIKUNI2 1 D.V.Bangara Raju, M.tech student, Department of Civil Engineering, Gitam University, Andhra Pradesh, India 2 Chandan Kumar Patnaikuni , Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Gitam University, Andhra Pradesh, India Abstract Dampers helps in reducing the vibrations caused by wind and earthquake. By using dampers we can improve the resistance of building towards the forces which are caused by earthquakes .In this study an attempt has been made to compare the results of equivalent static method and response spectrum method of seismic analysis for various models with
Another way to measure ocean currents is by the use of Eulerian measurements. These equipments got their names from a Swiss mathematician called Leonhard Euler. These instruments measure the speed and direction of a current in a fixed point. The instrument is anchored in the ocean water and measures the water speed and direction as the water moves pass the instrument. The Eulerian method is becoming more commonly used simply because it is easier to retrieve these instruments rather than to locate a drifting object.
The bandwidth selection of the accelerometer can be performed using capacitors at the XOUT, YOUT, and ZOUT pins. The output signals produced are proportional to acceleration. The sensor is a poly silicon surface micro machined structure on top of a silicon wafer. Poly silicon springs attached over the surface of the wafer and give a resistance against acceleration forces. Deflection of the system is measured by a differential capacitor.
It was adopted after the draft finalized by the Earthquake Engineering Sectional Committee had been approved by the Civil Engineering Division Council. Main features of seismic method of analysis based on Indian Standard IS 1893 (Part 1):2002 are as follows: There are two methods of analysis for determining earthquake effects on
The seismic waves recording, doorway to the building response It’s very well known that the use of real data provides the teaching of Earth sciences and, particularly, of earthquake science, a quite effective approach (e.g. Kafka et al., 2006). Therefore we proposed the teachers to involve students into the practice of recording earthquakes, for locating them and for comprehending basic principles of local site and building response; we were however conscious that most of the teachers could lack adequate knowledge to convey such contents to the students. On this topic we have earned a lot of experience thanks to the "GeoScience Summer School" that every year drives some high school students of the Friuli area at the CRS lab (e.g. Liceo Magrini,