The term is used differently by different groups in different circumstances. Yet the growing attention to the subject and the rising number of academics and professionals who are interested in urban design have brought to the surface a pressing need for a clearer definition of what they do. Analyzing factors causing such ambiguity can formulate a clear definition addresses urban design uncertainties (Madanipour, 1996). The adequacy of the existing urban design definitions is still uncertain, as is evident in recent researches and studies of urban design. In fact, uncertainty and ambiguity offers a wider scope for innovation and development; a clearly defined subject denies sufficient flexibility as what is needed is to separate complexity from ambiguity.
When placed in a city, one would dwell in the streets and hope to get lost in that fabric of structures so that he/she would be able to explore the endless possible experiences that he/she might obtain. Upon dwelling into those streets, one realizes some patterns and grids that facilitate residents’ lives and make it easier to walk and experience the spaces created. Some say that this is the effect of urban planning. according to Raphaël Fischler,of the School of Urban Planning, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Urban planning is hard to define and harder to practice because it is the unsteady, always renegotiated resolution of a number of contradictions, paradoxes, and tensions; for example ,the tension between urban planning
The entire process has been analysed for the study and has been found that various other things are also involved in building an image of the city. Although every person has their own way of creating a mental image of the city, they tend to be in unison when grouped together. To understand the reasoning behind the same, a study was done by involving people to identify general images which covered common views and other urban elements. The studies conducted by the author clarifies that the book talks about the perspective to the city from various elements and parts of the city, in contrast to understanding social cultures, needs and functional parts. These perspectives play a vital role in building a mental image of the city.
Therefore, Milner (2012) provides in his article three conceptual frameworks in order to clearly define the concept of an urban school and distinguish the different kinds of urban schools that can exist. The first conception is that of an “urban intensive” environment, meaning the schools that are concentrated in big, metropolitan cities and are the most representative sample of schools in urban districts. The term “urban emergent” is the one that refers to the schools located in large cities but not as large as the major cities. These usually share some or the same characteristics as urban intensive schools in relation to resources, qualification of teachers, and academic development of students. Finally, the term “urban characteristic” is used for schools that are not located in big cities, but may begin to experience problems related to urban contexts, such as an increase in English language learners in the community.
According to Curl (2000), it is also a term that suggests an architecture that responds to its surrounding by respecting what is already there, unlike Constructivism or Decontructivism which deliberately work against established geometries and fabric. According to the etymological manner statement made by Johnson (as cited in Cizgen, 2012) about Contextualism that expresses the relationship and the architecture context, he said that: “Derived from the Latin word “contexere”, which means weaving together, the word “context” can be described as “the setting of an event, composition, or text, in the sense of describing the spatio-temporal parts immediately preceding or following that determine its meaning." The word “contexture” which is no longer in use, can be considered to be more specific for the field of architecture as it has the following meaning: "the
Over the time, public spaces have been concentrated by socialists, urban planners and geographers. At the beginning, the public spaces were defined as an area that can be easily for everyone to access at any time. With the development of social and city, it became to a complicated definition which relevant to property, using and design of these spatial. As the result, R. Sennett said about the drop and end of public space because of these factor (Sennett, 1992) meanwhile Carr S. is finding a new pattern of modern life and it seems be a drama of living together in an enormous building (Carr, et al., 1993). Base on the traditional history and the reports, public spaces have a same pattern but they still have the differences in some factor such as historical, cultural, social even though the behavior of people in specific residential
Moreover, the modern city has an urgent requirement of innovate itself to attend the new aspects of the current life. The traditional urban space shows a highly connected mass, “which define ‘streets’ and ‘squares’ and a small-scale, (…) building are generally low-rise and of a similar height”. In contrast, the new urban space is characterized by an inorganic scale where “the building are set within a ‘super block’ system” that create distances in the space that are unsuitable for the human use. With this in mind, the “appreciation of morphology helps urban designers to be aware of local patters of development and processes of
Any public space (place, avenue, fast track, parking, square, pond, lake…etc.) participates in the image of the city. They represent the city, with its essence and dynamicity. The form of architecture is an honest and lively expression of past and present values, it expresses the identity of any society, community, or a nation. As the concept of identity in Architecture is based on a theoretical view which is that the elements, shapes and variant aspects of architecture reflect the lifestyle of the people and the society that produces it.
The scale and configuration of streets and open spaces (parks, greens, squares) should be attractive and comfortable to pedestrians. The design of streets and buildings should result in safety and security, as well as be accessible and open to the public. Architecture, building placement and landscaping should result in the physical definition of streets and other public spaces. Neighborhoods should include a variety of public spaces (tot-lots, village greens, ballfields, community gardens, etc.) that are strategically distributed and physically well defined.
1.1 RESEARCH BACKGROUND Urban planning and management is a method for implementing a development more systematic and efficiency. The main objectives are to a minimum the development into negative impact through the physical condition, economic, social and also the environmental aspects. According to Mc Loughlin (1975), urban planning practices involve three major ideologies such: a) Creating a balance of physical development with environment and good quality of life, health, and civilization, b) To distribute type of land use on the limited space of land and make it a compactness development, and c) Creating an urban physical facility for urban living quality and life. Urban planning nowadays influenced by others interested parties which are looking into aspects of management and coordination. These parties will concern to ensure the demand and supply of urban needs will more implement and effective.