An inter-organizational refinement is required and the internal and external mutual control and transparency must reassemble the civil administrative structure of Tehran. The Tehran urban management should define the duties of its subsidiary institutes obviously and prevent corruption. It also should have independent financial character, strong institutional will and robust legal position. In this case, it would be possible to face frankly against contraventions and greed of private capitalists, banks or insurance companies.
Rational motivation should be encouraged, and people regardless of their profession must think of how making their city a better place to live. Volunteers should help engineers to improve the levee network, i.e. within the framework of voluntary IT support, software development, or donating on the reconstruction of the available levee network along with the investment in the brand new model of the levee
Even the much revered sense of community that New Urbanists hope to "reintroduce" into the urban fabric is closely tied to individualistic ideas about relative insulation and exclusion (Vanderbeek & Irazabal, 2007). Though it is often viewed as the philosophical antithesis of Modernism, New Urbanism is better described as a continuation of modernism, or even as a neo modernist movement (Vanderbeek & Irazabal, 2007). Examining the origins of New Urbanism shows it to be a dynamic movement rooted in constant guiding principles. Its early practitioners sought a practical, resilient, well-founded, and buildable alternative to sprawl.
Having many ideas on the table ensures that the most effective means for the city, as well as the community, are addressed. According to FEMA examples of plans include engineers utilizing structural control, emergency managers using activities geared towards warning/response, and land planners leaning towards regulations (2007, pg. 7). Having a planning committee that includes multiple agencies and groups provide a higher chance of success. The involvement of local stakeholders is essential to an effective plan.
The main concern of Elmore (1980) (Handbook of Public Policy Analysis, Ch7, p93) was the question of how to study implementation. Instead of assuming that policy makers effectively control implementation, his concept of “backward mapping” suggested that
So, if there is a prehistory of conflict among stakeholders, then collaborative governance is improbable to succeed unless (a) there is a high degree of interdependence among the stakeholders or (b) positive steps are taken to remedy the low levels of trust and social capital among the stakeholders. Interdependence: when stakeholders are unable to fulfill something on their own, is a broadly recognized precondition for collaborative action (Gray, 1989; Thomson & Perry, 2006). The final driver, uncertainty, is a primary challenge for managing social problems (Koppenjan & Klijn, 2004; Rittel &Webber, 1973). Uncertainty that cannot be resolved internally can drive groups to collaborate in order to decrease, distribute, and share risk.
The term is used differently by different groups in different circumstances. Yet the growing attention to the subject and the rising number of academics and professionals who are interested in urban design have brought to the surface a pressing need for a clearer definition of what they do. Analyzing factors causing such ambiguity can formulate a clear definition addresses urban design uncertainties (Madanipour, 1996). The adequacy of the existing urban design definitions is still uncertain, as is evident in recent researches and studies of urban design. In fact, uncertainty and ambiguity offers a wider scope for innovation and development; a clearly defined subject denies sufficient flexibility as what is needed is to separate complexity from ambiguity.
Choosing the variables to capture the magnitude of the urban sprawl is the main challenge for the evaluation of the consequences of urban sprawl. One of the most well-known measures for assessing the urban sprawl employs variants of population density or developed areas as a proxy. However, the use of this kind of variables has been criticized for two main reasons. First, as pointed out by Hortas-Rico and Solé-Ollé (2010), there is no agreement regarding the right variables to capture density (density of housing units, population or employment), the extent of the space over which density should be characterized (total or urbanized area), and the scale at which density should be measured (metropolitan or municipality). Secondly, the density does not describe the urban areas properly, although it indicates the presence of scale of certain urban services, it fails showing the distribution of the
Therefore, the success of a town in acquiring its identity and sense of place determined by the important role of townscape that reflects the relationship between elements that compose the urban fabric. The concept of townscape can be defined as a part of a city that has a significance in setting a character of a city. Townscape is a result of a symbiotic interaction and cross fertilisation to a high degree of economic activities, architectural ideas, cultural and social diversities. Diversity within a uniform environment creates an effect that stimulates the senses and mind to view the environment as a city. The charm of townscape and places is also due to human activity patterns that reflect the socio-cultural values of the
There is the likelihood of action being taken and solutions implemented, without an accurate understanding of the impacts they may have, or how sustainable they may turn out to be. Compact city could be a good reference if some polices is implemented under certain criteria since compact city is a paradox with positive and negative impact on sustainability in different aspects. Policies and management are crucial to be implemented to make the compact city contribute to
The analysis has proved beyond reasonable doubt that land use elements act as a catalyst for orderly and efficient distribution of land resources, concerns that will eventually improve residents’ quality of life. For these reasons, it is imperative that all cities have a proper general plan with a clear land use
The two main ethical principles that are in conflict are confidentiality and veracity. Confidentiality this the principle were you are respecting the privacy of the person you are working with. This principle applies to the city, if Reggie believes she can provide non-bias results does the city council indeed need to know where she lives? With confidentiality, they would not
Also it group of militia ensures that they prompt obedience of the people in the courts. This means that people in power especially the magistrates should ensure that order is maintained and justice is given. The syndic had the daily responsibility to ensure that there is obedience to laws that govern them. On the other theory about "ways of seeing", Berger view about the function of power is totally different from that of Foucault but it compliments that of Foucault. According to Berger, the function of power is to provide direction to those who are not in power.
This toolset will drive operational excellence by creating consistent processes for both the plans and FEPDO. The dashboard and reporting features provide a real-time insight into key performance measurements to support informed decision making, the ability to generate configurable automated reports and schedule delivery of those reports. Workflow will provide the much-needed relief to supervisors who currently manually assign workflow processes and give them greater visibility into backlogs and claims inventory. It also eliminates the paper and email trail we currently use to manage assignments and employee progress; allowing Managers and Team leads to reallocate their time to other high value
Planning is transforming socially, but to achieve change it has to bring together, politicians, planners, and residents (Sandercock, 2004). Citizen’s opinions and rights should be taken into consideration. It is the number one rule in the planning process for participants. It says, “recognize the rights of citizens to participate in planning decisions” (Ethical, n.d.). Cities cannot progress unless they change their ways of doing things.