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Ambulation Exercises

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The procedure of this study was performed in all patients consistently for four visits every other week for eight weeks in an outpatient rehabilitation treatment facility. Exercises included ankle pumps, hip abduction, quadriceps setting and active assisted range of motion to enhance knee range of motion and strength of the muscle groups. The rehabilitation evaluation incorporated measurements of physical function and gait variability. On day one after surgery, patients began ambulation exercises and activities of daily living with the physical therapist. A walker was used for dependent ambulation and later progressing to a cane for independent ambulation. Once the patient was stable enough, the therapist introduced descending and ascending…show more content…
A 2-arm plastic goniometer determined knee range of motion. Yoshinori Hiyama et. al., stated the “goniometer was placed over the lateral epicondyle of the femur, the proximal arm aligned with the greater trochanter of the femur, and the distal arm aligned with the lateral malleolus of the ankle.” In the supine position, passive knee flexion and extension were instructed with full passive knee range of motion. A 40-cm high chair without seat arms were used for all patients testing the TUG score. Then the patients walked 3 meters at normal speed, turned around and sat down in the chair. The stopwatch was used to obtain results of the TUG test. NRS or numeric rating scale was used to determine knee pain throughout the TUG test. Patients had to rate their pain on a 0-10 pain scale verbally, 10 representing severe pain. The peak isometric knee extension torque determined quadriceps strength. Patients sat in a stable chair with their hands placed on their laps while the affected knee was held at 90 degrees. The patient extended their knee by “kicking as hard as possible”, stated Yoshinori Hiyama et. al. using the dynamometer isometric leg muscle strength measurements. Calculations were performed of maximal contractions by the dynamometer and center of rotation of the knee joint. The affected and unaffected leg were both tested in this
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