Health inequalities are a result of unequal exposure to risk factors associated with socio-economic inequalities, such as social, economic and environmental conditions (Thomson, Bambra, McNamara, Huijts, & Todd, 2016). These inequalities in health, between people belonging to different socio-economic groups, were firstly recognized in the Nineteenth century, when public health figures in different European countries dedicated their studies to these issues (Mackenbach, 2006). Villermé (1782-1863), conducted a study in Paris, and showed districts with lower socio-economic statuses had higher mortality rates compared to neighborhoods with a higher socio-economic status, and came to the conclusion that life and death are related to social circumstances
Paul Krugman, an economics professor at Princeton, writes “Confronting Inequality” chapter 7 in his book. Equality in America is what makes America, what it stands for. Social and economic inequality still is a part of everyday life in America. Education is making parents struggle because they want to give them a good education; but also, health care for those who need it. Middle-class starts to scramble more every day while the high-class gets more prosperous. Inequality in America is creating trouble to the lives of Americans.
It was found that people who made more money, has more access to a healthier lifestyle (groceries, time to cook, exercising, etc.), were less stressed, a lower probability of getting sick, and had a higher life expectancy. The people higher socioeconomically, are typically white people, and the ones on the other end are typically minorities. Black and Latino’s do not have the same job opportunities because they do not get access to the same level of education as white communities, and in turn are stuck at the bottom of the socioeconomic
To exemplify this fact, imagine a time before preventative health screenings were available; SES could not be tied to access to care, because these did not exist. For conditions where medical advances have been made that now provide treatment and prevention, overall mortality decreased while SES and race gradients shifted toward greater mortality for less fortunate groups (Phelan, Link, & Tehranifar, 2010). The Fundamental Cause Theory’s basic principle described by Phelan (2010) states, “a superior collection of flexible resources held by higher SES individuals and the collectivities to which they belong allow those of higher SES to avoid disease and death in widely divergent circumstances”. This theory argues that those with more resources, whether it is money, knowledge, power, etc., have better access to healthcare, and will die less often from preventable disease. Lower SES individuals experience several ways in which their social class impacts their health: less access to healthcare, poor behavior and lifestyle habits, and exposure to harmful environmental toxins.
Health inequalities are preventable and unjust differences in health status experienced by certain population groups. People in lower socio-economic groups are more likely to experience chronic ill-health and die earlier than those who are more advantaged. Health inequalities are not only apparent between people of different socio-economic groups – they exist between different genders and different ethnic groups (“Health inequalities,” n.d.). The situation in which people are born, grow, develop, work and age are affected by social, economic, environmental and most importantly political factors.
1. Even with our medical advances, the United States ranks 29th because of lack of health care for some individuals but also the lifestyle Americans have. Another reason is that class statuses correspond with our health outcomes. What I meant about this, is that lower and middle class individuals are exposed to more health threats than higher class. This is the connections between healthy bodies and healthy bank accounts and race/ethnicity.
1. Introduction Income inequality has grown significantly during this past decades and this phenomenon continues to increase over the years. This problem is constantly discussed in the daily news all around the world. Several consequences of this increase of inequality between people leads to economic problems such as high unemployment rates, lack of work for young people, fall of demand for certain product. The gap between rich and poor is increasing, the rich are richer and the poor are poorer as a result politicians and economists try to adopt certain policies in order to reduce this gap.
Toronto Star. Retrieved from https://www.thestar.com/opinion/public_editor/2012/07/15/richpoor_gap_is_making_can adians_sick.html Ruckert, A., & Labont, R. (2014). The global financial crisis and health equity: Early experiences from Canada. Globalization and Health, 10(2). Retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com.uproxy.library.dc- uoit.ca/ps/i.do?p=AONE&sw=w&u=ko_acd_uoo&v=2.1&it=r&id=GALE%7CA362893 917&sid=
Health outcomes among people depend upon the resources that people have to live a quality life. The variations with the money distribution and power derive such circumstances and induce inequalities in health at domestic and global levels where they have become unavoidable at present (Vega & Frenz, 2013). It has been stated that income, housing as well as environment are the major categories undermining all the factors of social determinants as mentioned earlier. Individuals, groups and communities are negatively influenced by these factors in their health status. Governments of all nations have undertaken several measures to tackle the risks arising from these conditions (Chapman, 2010).
A link between poverty, low educational attainment and poorer health outcomes with increased morbidity and mortality is well established (Causes of Health Disparities, n.d.). Also, certain religious practices may not allow one person to obtain the believed cure or care needed to prevent certain illnesses and diseases. A lack of income and low educational attainment decreases one 's chances of having quality access to healthcare. If one is not able to afford health care or is ignorant to what the health care field has to offer, illness and disease may build up over time, increasing chances for a health disparity. Gender and age could also cause one not to want to obtain health care, furthermore decreasing their health.
Being a racial minority or of lower social status, health and longevity could be effected because they may not have the money or insurance necessary to cover medical expenses. People in lower social status situations typically are low income families and do not have insurance. Without medical insurance, these people are unable to maintain healthy lifestyles. They do not receive preventative care which can negatively impact their longevity. People in lower income families also can not afford to eat properly.
According to Conley, Poverty can be defined as “a condition of deprivation due to economic circumstances” that is severe enough that the person in this condition cannot live with dignity in his or her society. The culture of poverty theory argues that poor people adopt certain practices, which differ from those of middle-class, “mainstream” society, in order to become accustomed and survive in difficult economic situations. Therefore, I strongly agree with the statement “A person’s health varies depending on the social and ethnic groups to which he or she belongs” because if you are living under a low class social status or being part of a racial minority, it will definitely have impacts or influence a person’s health and longevity. In case
The hierarchy is divided into categories of upper, middle and lower class. These categories can be sub-divided into more groups, for example lower- middle class, etc. An individual’s socioeconomic status can depend on many different combinations of income, education, rank, race and ethnicity, and more. Everything related to socioeconomic status can be strongly related to an individual’s health and there have been many studies comparing these two.
Introduction Health is an important element throughout our life. A person’s health can be affected by many social factors such as gender roles and economic positions. As there are differences in health status between different populations groups, health inequality is then formed, for example, differences in morbidity and mortality rates between people from different social classes. In my essay, I will first define the meaning of ‘health’ from different perspectives. Then, I will talk about how social factors such as gender roles and economic positions determine a person’s health.